Study on Systematic and Phylogeny of Architeuthis in Japanese waters

Research Project Number:13660197

FY2003 Final Research Report Summary(English)

Principal Investigator

    • KUBODERA Tsunemi
    • Researcher Number:80170041
    • National Science Museum, Tokyo, Department of Zoology, Chief Curator

Basic Information of this Research Project

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  • Research Institution

    National Science Museum, Tokyo


1.Systematic study based on external morphology was conducted with 10 individuals of Architeuthis collected around Japan. In results, three different types of mature male were recognized, i.e. a male having arms shorter than dorsal mantle length (DML) with distal portions of both Arm IV hectocotylized, a male having arms about 120% of DML with distal portions of both Arm IV hectocotylized and a male having arms about 150-170% of DML with no hectocotylized arms

2.Molecular systematic study was conducted among above types with a sample from Architeuthis off New Zealand. COI in mtDNA was featured to analyze and 1276bp were compared. In results, a female of the third type has two differences and a male of the first type has one difference. The other four individuals, even in Architeuthis from New Zealand, have the same sequences. This indicates that those types and Architeuthis form NZ are possibly considered to be a single species

3.Molecular phylogeny based on COI(658bp) among 60 species of Japanese cephalopods suggested that Architeuthis is allied to Discoteuthis.

4.Although no pictures of Architeuthis in nature was taken, under water digital camera survey off Ogasawara Islands in 2002 and 2003 has yielded many interesting photos and knowledge of deep-sea large animals, including neon-fling squid in this region.

5.Judging from previous studies on Architeuthis in Japanese waters, the third type is assuredly identical as A. Japonica described by Mitsukuri and Ikeda (1895). For the latter types, including Architeuthis in different regions in the world, further detailed studies on both morphological and molecular systematics based on specimens in good condition are highly required.


  • Kubodera, T.: "Problems in systematic of Architeuthis In Japanese waters."Taxa (Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology)(In Japanese). No.11. 26 (2001)

  • Kubodera, T.: "Problems in systematic of Architeuthis"Umiushi-Tsuushin (In Japanese). (32). 2-5 (2001)

  • Kubodera, T.: "Giant Squid, monster of the Sea."Marine Museum (Tokai University) (In Japanese). 32(4). 4-5 (2002)

  • Kubodera, T.: "Architeuthis in Japanese waters"Biology, Recruitment & Culture of Cephalopods, CIAC 2003 Program & Abstract. 50. (2003)

  • Kubodera, T.: "In situ observation on feeding behavior of neon-flying squid, Ommastrephes bartrami, in the waters off Ogasawara with a compact Under-water digital camera"Reports of 2003 annual meeting of squids resources study : 1-6. Research Institute of the Sea of Japan. (In Japanese).

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