|Budget Amount *help
¥6,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1990: ¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1989: ¥5,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥5,200,000)
With the view of elucidating the time and the route of the introduction of cattle and horses into our country, their remains excavated from the archaeological sites were investigated nation-widely and their excavated bones and teeth were macroscopically and morphometrically examined comparatively with native cattle and horses. The results obtained were as follows :
1) Excavational investigations have been made according to the reports from To, Do, Fu and Prefectures, archaeological literatures and field surveys. Bovine excavation detected at 213 nation-wide sites with a predominance of the Kyushu and Kanto districts, and equine excavation, at 475 sites with similar predominance. Chronologically, both bovine and equine excavations occurred most from the medieval ages, followed by Heian, Kofun and Nara Periods. Although excavations prior to the Yayoi Period have been reported, the bovine skull excavated from the Isarago Shell Mound (Mid-Yayoi Period) in Tokyo-To has been oldest so far.
Morphologically, excavated bones were similar to Mishima's and Kuchinoshima's for cattle and to Misaki's and Tokara's for horses (predominantly of 128cm in withers height and belonging to medium-sized ones).
3) Harness excavations, which have been investigated centrally into the Kofun Period, detected at 1,265 nation-wide sites, and regionally, most from the Kyushu district (368 sites), followed by the Kanto, Kinki and Chugoku districts. Chronologically, harness appeared as sub-burial goods in the Kofun at the beginning of the 4th and 5th centuries and was widely distributed in the 5th century, but was markedly decreased in excavation with a decrease in the Kofun in the 7th century.
4) Excavations of equine clay image occurred at 297 nation-wide sites with overwhelming predominance of the Kanto district (170 sites), followed by the Kinki and Kyushu districts, and chronologically, appeared from about the end of the 5th century and were plastically most substantial in the 6th century. Clay horses regarded as available for one's memory were excavated most from the Nara and Heian Periods (328 of 589 nation-wide sites) and especially, frequently from ancient cities such as Heijokyo and Heiankyo.
The above results of investigation suggest that cattle and horses had been introduced into Japan via the Korean Peninsula from the Yayoi Period on and bred by the then people. Less