|Budget Amount *help
¥1,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1991: ¥600,000 (Direct Cost: ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1990: ¥900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥900,000)
Traditionally, the catholic church considered the matrimony the sacred and indissoluble sacrament based on the consent by both sexes. Since the 16th century the royal authority, seeking the way of centralizing the political society, demanded to satisfy the required conditions for marriage. It fortified the patriarchal authority and formalized the traditional households. Jean Bodin criticized the aristotelian tradition and, emphasizing the similarity of the patriarchal and the royal authorities, made the theoretical foundation of the absoluteness of the paterfamilias and the monarch. Bossuet legitimatized the secular authority religiously referring to the Holy Scripture. It was John Locke who criticized such theories of absolutism with the theory of the social contract. Locke made a sharp distinctionbetween the political power and the paternal one. He regarded the reproduction and the conservation of the human species as the basis of the family, the essential function of which was the education of children. Locke's view, translated in french, influenced Montesqieu and the "Encycopddistes', who emphasized the familial function of reproduction and education more than Locke.
Jean=Jacque Rousseau, against these philosophes, thought of the family as the intimate sphere where developed the human sentiments based on the conjugal affection and the paternal love. In his words, family is nothing but a "pesonne morale" made through the union of both sexes and our hearts will be linked with the "grande patrie" by the family as the "petite patrie". In "Nouvelle Heloise", we can find both the echoes of the traditional household and the ideas of the intimate sphere filled with the sentiments and the affections, but at the same time, we can never fail to notice the danger of the passionate love which menaces the family system. After the French Revolution, the Civil Code institutionalized the modern family system.