Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants |
|Research Institution||International Research Center for Japanese Studies |
YASUDA Yoshinori Associate Professor, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 研究部, 助教授 (50093828)
YAINTUS Ahmet Associate Professor, Faculty of Science Ege University, 理学部(トルコ), 助教授
KITAGAWA Hiroyuki Research Assistant International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 研究部, 助手 (00234245)
TAKAHASHI Manabu Associate Professor, Faculty of Literature Ritsumeikan University, 文学部, 助教授 (80236322)
INOUE Katsuhiro Professor, Faculty of Agriculture Iwate University, 農学部, 教授 (30035109)
KASHIMA Kaoru Associate Professor, Faculty of General Education, Kyushu University, 教養部, 助教授 (90192533)
MITAMURA Osamu Osakakyoiku University, 助教授 (50030458)
TABATA Hideo Associate Professor Ecological Research Center, Kyoto University, 生態研センター, 助教授 (20025373)
NISHIMURA Tsuguo Professor, Faculty of General Education Aichigakuin University, 教養部, 教授 (70167568)
NARUSE Toshiro Professor, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, 教授 (60033510)
YAMAORI Tetsuo Professor, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 研究部, 教授 (40102686)
AHMET Yaintu トルコ, エーゲ大学・理学部, 助教授
AHMET Yainth エーゲ大学, 理学部, 助教授
久野 昭 国際日本文化研究センター, 研究部, 教授 (10057961)
埴原 和郎 国際日本文化研究センター, 研究部, 教授 (70011707)
大村 幸弘 中近東文化研究センター, 主任研究員
|Project Period (FY)
1991 – 1993
Completed (Fiscal Year 1993)
|Budget Amount *help
¥23,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥23,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1993: ¥3,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1992: ¥10,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥10,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1991: ¥10,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥10,000,000)
|Keywords||Turkey and Syria / Climatic changes / Pollen analysis / Radiocarbon dating / Lebanon cedar / Forest destruction / Noah Flood / Civilization / トルコ / シリア / 環境変動 / 地中海文明 / 珪藻分析 / 環境変遷史 / ボ-リング|
The results of pollen, diatom and geochemical analyses and radiocarbon dating of the soil samples taken from the lakes and marshes cleared the following new facts in the history of environment and civilizations in Turkey and Syria.
1)The vast step composed of Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia expanded during the glacial period in Turkey and Syria.
2)The lake level such as Lake Tuz during the glacial period was more than 20m higher than that of the present.
3)The plant cultivation started in such kind of extensive grass land.
4)The forest mainly composed of Quercus and Cedrus expanded after 10,000 years BP, indicating the climatic amelioration. The nitrogen and organic carbon contents in the lake deposit also increased.
5)The olive cultivation began at 8000 years BP in the Ghave valley, northwest Syria. This evidence of the olive cultivation is the oldest record in the world.
6)A major climatic change occurred at 5000 years BP. Cold and wet climate caused the big flood compared with Noah in the Old Testament.
7)Lebanon cedar in the mountain of the northwest Syria was completely cleared until 4000 years BP.
8)There was second major climatic changes at 3200 years BP. This climatic change gave the fatal blow to the decline of the Hittite Empire in Turkey.
9)The soil erosion and deterioration which were accelerated by the forest destruction were also major factors of the decline of ancient civilizations in Turkey and Syria.
10)The ancient harbors such as Miletos and Pliene were filled up by the alluvial deposits and the harbors were abandoned by the shift of river course of the Biyuku Menderes.
11)It is cleared that rise and fall of the ancient civilizations in Turkey and Syria were suffered by the environmental changes such as climate changes and the natural environment, especially the forest, was severely destructed by the development of civilizations in Turkey and Syria.