Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants |
|Research Institution||University of Tokyo |
HIDAI Masanobu U of Tokyo, Graduate School of Engineering, Professor, 大学院・工学系研究科, 教授 (60011011)
IWASAWA Yasuhiro U of Tokyo, Graduate School of Science ; Professor, 大学院・理学系研究科, 教授 (40018015)
SAITO Taro U of Tokyo, Graduate School of Science ; Professor, 大学院・理学系研究科, 教授 (90011006)
FUJIMOTO Kaoru U of Tokyo, Graduate School of Engineering ; Professor, 大学院・工学系研究科, 教授 (30011026)
MURAI Shinji Osaka U,Faculty of Engineering, Professor, 工学部, 教授 (00029050)
YOSHIDA Zen-ichi Kinki U,Faculty of Science and Engineerig, Professor, 理工学部, 教授 (60025814)
長倉 三郎 総合研究大学院大学, 学長 (30013444)
|Project Period (FY)
1992 – 1994
Completed (Fiscal Year 1995)
|Budget Amount *help
¥133,900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥133,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1995: ¥3,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1994: ¥9,300,000 (Direct Cost: ¥9,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1993: ¥41,700,000 (Direct Cost: ¥41,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1992: ¥79,900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥79,900,000)
|Keywords||small inert molecule / dinitrogen / methane / carbon dioxide / metal cluster / solid surface|
The Objective of this research project lines in the establishment of chemical transformaitons using small inert molecules such as dinitrogen and methane which are abundant on earth, and carbon dioxide, the increase of which in the atmosphere arises from the use of fossil fuel by the human being and is becoming a serious environmental problems on a global scale. This is the fundamental and basic research towards the development of ideal chemical processes using carbon dioxide and methane as the simple carbon resourse and dinitrogen as the simple nitrogen resource to synthesize valuable organic compounds.
Efficient activation and chemical utilization of these small inert molecules are one of the most challenging subjects in chemistry. The main achievements in this project are described below.
1) The coordinated dinitrogen in molybdenum and tungsten phosphine complexes has been converted into nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds such as pyrrole and aminopyrrole via a series of reactions under mi
ld conditions. Indole derivatives have also been synthesized from dinitrogen by using titanium systems. These results will open a new chemistry of nitrogen fixation where a variety of organo-nitrogen compounds are directly prepared from molecular nitrogen.
2) Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide on a copper electrode gives rise to the formation of methane, ethane, and ethanol. The reaction has been revealed to proceed through the formaiton of carbon monoxide as an intermediate on the electrode.
3) Selective electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol has been for the first time realized by using redox enzymes as electrocatalysts.
4) Photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide on the p-type silicon electrode modified with ultrafine copper particles has led to the formation of methane and ethylene at a more positive potential than on a copper metal electrode.
5) New reactions have been developed which transform methane and carbon monoxide into acetic acids by using copper catalyst. This provides the first example of the carbon-carbon bond formation reactions of methane under mild conditions. Less