HARADA Taneo Ashiya University, Professor, 教授 (00000076)
TAKAKURA Sho University of Tsukuba, Faculty of Education, Professor, 教育学系, 教授 (50030268)
KAWANOBE Satoshi National Institute for Educational Research, Division Chief, 生涯学習研究部, 部長 (10000001)
OKUDA Shinjo Kawamura Women's University, Deputy President, 副学長 (00126377)
ARAI Ikuo Joetu Education University, Faculty of School Education, Professor, 学校教育学部, 教授 (30000061)
Our research yielded various results, however we shall stress here several points found through (1)domestic research (2)international research and (3) theoretical research.
1.Results of our Domestic Research.
The following were clarified : textbooks were seen as 'teaching materials for subject in Struction' and at the same time as 'learning materials for pupils' and because of this view, teachers make strong demand for the improvement of textbooks.
Their demands are (1)texts need to deal with the basics and fundamentals, (2)they need to take everyday life into consideration, (3)text should have a device that promotes easy understanding, (4)texts should have a device for visual presentation, (5)they should embody the aim of instruction for the subject.
2.Results of the Research done Abroad
In every country the view of textbooks as'learning materials' is gradually being fixed in society. The body of research and development on textbooks now being done can be summarized in the following way : (1)attempts to construct textbooks with which students can study by themselves, (2)attempts to construct textbooks which are easy for children to understand so that they can learn by themselves, (3)attempts to make children's learning materials convenient by making various teaching materials as a set.
3.Results of the Theoretical Research
(1)The function of'learning materials', we suggest is to (a)motivate learning, (b)present learning tasks, (c)present learning methods, (d)individualize learning, (e)help students internalize what has been learned.
(2)In order for textbooks to function as'leaning materials'we pointed out that the following are needed : (a)mutual interaction between teachers and pupils or students, (b)for the textbook to have relation with other materials, (c)for it be useful for the preparation of lessons, (d)a textbooks must take into account the individual difference of students.