|Budget Amount *help
¥2,100,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1995: ¥700,000 (Direct Cost: ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 1994: ¥700,000 (Direct Cost: ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 1993: ¥700,000 (Direct Cost: ¥700,000)
This study aimed at the clarification of development directions for small family farms in Southeast Asia by the positive analysis of available individual farm management data obtained from past studies in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. Special focus was placed on the issue of farm management innovation in addition to the analysis of technological and institutional innovations. Main research results are summarized into the following three points. First, economic development in the region in recent years has brought about significant impact on the traditional agricultural production in the form of greatly increased opportunity costs of land, labor and capital. As a result, some serious problems of agricultural sustainability have been caused by the increased demand for land for the purpose of non-agricultural use, the emigration of agricultural labor to the non-agricultural secotrs, and the declining rate of growth in agricultural investment. Farm management responses
to these phenomena included not only the intensilication of rice farming and diversification of rice land use but also the increased production of such profitable commodities as vegetables, fruits and livestock.
Second, diversification of rice land use has been one of the major policy agendas in most countries, but many problems exist in relation to land infrastructure, technological development and extension, and marketing of production materials and agricultural produce. Diversification has been more successfully promoted in more progressive rice growing areas where various institutions are established, while the abandonment of farming seemed to be more common in disadvantaged rice growing areas. Regardless of the type of crop, the establishment of viable farming appeared to require adequately improved coditions for production including infrastructure, technology and economic transactions.
Third, the increase in vegetable production has been particularly remarkable in highland areas in the region. However, upland agricultural infrastructure has not been improved so much, Upland land reclamation and indiscriminate use of chemical inputs for vegetable farming have created a new set of environmental problems including soil erosion and degradation, flooding, lower safety in food, and farmers' heath problems.
It can be said that these phenomena are all brought out by the vigorous effort of small and poor farmers whose promary concern is increased income. It is therefore vitally important to prepare conditions for the establishment of viable farming through integrated approaches including regulation on land ownership and use, promotion of technological and institutional innovetions, and marketing improvement. Unless farming activities by small poor farmers can be led to viable farming, agricultural sustainability cannot be attained in Southeast Asia. Less