Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants |
|Research Institution||National Museum of Ethnology |
YAMAMOTO Norio Research Division, National Musum of Ethnology, Professor, 第5研究部, 教授 (90111088)
SHRESTA Hari Nepal Agriculturer Research Center, 研究員
FURUKAWA Akira Department of Sociology, Chukyo University, 社会学部, 助教授 (90199422)
YUKI Fumitaka Faculty of Political-economy, Yachiyo International University, 政経学部, 教授 (80210582)
INAMURA Tetsuya Department of Literature, Aichi Provincial University, 文学部, 教授 (00203208)
TSUCHIYA Kazumi Faculty of Literature, Ryukoku University, 文学部, 助教授 (00217332)
HONGO Akio Department of Grassland Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinar, 畜産学部, 助教授 (30091549)
IWATA Shuji Department of Geography, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 理学部, 教授 (60117695)
ハリ シュレスタ ネパール農業技術研究所, 研究員
|Project Period (FY)
1994 – 1996
Completed (Fiscal Year 1996)
|Budget Amount *help
¥15,800,000 (Direct Cost: ¥15,800,000)
Fiscal Year 1996: ¥4,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1995: ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥5,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1994: ¥6,600,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,600,000)
|Keywords||environmental exploitation / Nepal Himalaya / Solu-Khumbu region / yak-herding and agriculture / Shepa society / sustainable developments / fragile environments / pasture and forest / ヒマラヤ / 熱帯高地 / 草地・森林利用 / 家畜飼養 / 農耕技術 / 環境認識 / 多民族間関係 / ネパール / シェルパ族 / 環境 / 牧畜 / 農耕|
The main purpose of this project is to construct th new "Himalayan Model" of the environmental exploitation on the southern slope of the eastern Nepal Himalaya, through the joint investigation both of natural scientists and social scientists. Field work was conducted several times by all members mainly in the Solu-khumbu region of Nepal-Himalaya from 1994 to 1997. Our research was focused to know and understand the natural environment (mainly grassland and forest), its use (mainly agriculture and yak breeding) as well as to the social system related to them in this region.
Main results obtained are as follows.
1) Based on many plants collected and climatic data observed, the characteristics of natural environments in this region can be analyzed well
2) The environmental exploitation such as yak-herding and agriculture in this region was observed and examined both from technological and from socio-cultural perspectives.
3) The social system of control on natural environment (pasture and forest) by patri-lineal clan of Sherpa society was found. This system is recognized as an effective method for the sustainable development in this region.
4) The symbiotic relation between Sherpa and Grun people, who share the Sherpa's summer pasture in the highland for feeding their sheep, were oberved. This relation is considerded to be a method eveloped for effective use of limited natural resources.
In general, technologies for environmental control made it possible to use fragile environments in a sustained manner and effective social systems were developed for land control and use by local communities in the regions studied. In recent years, however, these systems have changed even in the high mountain areas, due to progress in transportation as well as to cultivation of highly productive crops introduced mainly from the New World. In addition, many highland inhabitants have emigrated to the lowlands because economic resources became scarece in the highlands.