MATSUDA Haruo Ishikawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Senio, 専門研究員
MIKAGE Masayuki Kanazawa University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Associate Professor, 薬学部, 助教授 (50115193)
MIYAZAKI Motoichi Kanazawa University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor, 薬学部, 教授 (50009164)
松田 春夫 石川県環境保健センター, 専門研究員
|Budget Amount *help
¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1995: ¥500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1994: ¥1,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,500,000)
(1) Each mean concentration of 1,3-dinitropyrene (1,3-DNP), 1,6-DNP,1,8-DNP and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) in air in downtown Kanazawa were in the levels of fmol m^<-3> and sub pmol m^<33>-pmol m^<-3>, respectively. The concentrations were high in the daytime and low in the midnight and early in the morning. This diurnal variation gave a good correlation to the traffic volume, suggesting automobiles were the main contributors. The concentrations were high in spring and summer and low in autumn and winter. As reasons for this, degradation by sunlight in the former seasons and low atmospheric mixing dephts in the latter seasons were considered.
(2) Concentrations of 1,3-, 1,6-and 1,8-DNPs and 1-NP in air in winter and summer in downtown Kanazawa, Sapporo and Tokyo were determined. Although the mean concentrations in Kanazawa were lower than those in Tokyo and Sapporo, there were similar tendencies as described above. The 1-NP to DNPs ratio in Sapporo was the largest in the three cities, suggest
ing the largest diesel-engine vehicles to gasoline-engine vehicles ratio.
(3) Concentrations of 1,3-, 1,6-and 1,8-DNPs in diesel Particulate were at the same levels as those in gasoline particulate. However, the concentration of 1-NP in diesel particulate was much higher than that in gasoline particulate. Considering the amount of particulates emitted from diesel-engine much larger than that of gasoline-engine, the contribution of diesel-engine vehicles to the amount of the above compounds in urban air was much larger than that of gasoline-engine vehicles.
(4) In both diurnal and seasonal variation studies, good correlation coefficients were observed between the four concentrations and direct-acting mutagenic activities by the Ames test using three stains, TA98, YG1021 and YG1024. In the three, the YG1024 gave the largest coefficient. The contributions of the four compounds to the activities of air in YG1024 and TA98 strains were about 30% and 10%, respectively. The silica gel column chromatography suggested that the other contributors were less polar. When particulates were separately collected into five fractions of different particulate sizes, both the compounds and the activity were mainly contained in the finest particulate fraction (less than 1.1um) which was most adsorbed in alveoli of the lung. Less