|Budget Amount *help
¥6,300,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1997: ¥1,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1996: ¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1995: ¥3,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,200,000)
Euro-American philosophers have developed theories on dance in the frame of "subject-object model, " as if dance viewer were the subject of the cognition of, or even of the judgment on, the bodily movement on stages. Our claim is that the experience of dance viewers can and must be regarded as a sort of bodily resonance evoked through dancer's movements : Dance experience is completely different from cognitive process.
Observing conversation between mother and child, W.Condon discovered the synchronized bodily movement between them, which he called "entrainment." Supposing similar structure in watching performance, we carried out several experiments on exercises of keeping musical rhythm. We found two kinds of rhythm which results in different effects of entrainment : the mechanical segmentation of time, which metronome would keep most efficiently, and meaningful phrase or Gestalt, which is articulated and unified only through musician's expression or technic like "agogics" . Important is that phrase is stronger than mechanical rhythm in evoking entrainment. Entrainment happens in different layrs and the layr-of meaning is more powerful.
It Doesn't mean that the cognitive element is still important. We must distinguish time to be lived from time to be known. The former is quantized by phrases, due to entrainment, rules the whole system involving subject and object, viewer and dancer, self and others. In the field of theater this leads to "life model, " which regards the whole theater including stage and viewers as one living system. Whole theater must be seen as "dissipative structure" (Prigogine), where system is spontaneously organized through "sway", which causes entrainment covering each element. "Subject-object model" must be replaced by "life model" , because the dynamics of organic self-organization yields two figures of the former model.