SHIMIZU Akitoshi National Museum of Ethnology, 4 th Research Dept., Professor, 第4研究部, 教授 (30009758)
KURODA Etsuko National Museum of Ethnology, 4 th Research Dept., Professor, 第4研究部, 教授 (60110079)
AOYAGI Machiko Ibaraki Chrischan Colledge, Faculty of Literature, Professor, 文学部, 教授 (00089278)
AOYAGI Kiyotaka Kyoto Bunkyo University, Faculty of Human Studies, Professor, 人間学部, 教授 (90052224)
KISHIGAMI Nobuhiro National Museum of Ethnology, 1 st Research Dept., Associate Prof.,, 第1研究部, 助教授 (60214772)
玉置 泰明 静岡県立大学, 国際関係学部, 助教授 (90192640)
百瀬 響 北海道教育大学, 教育学部・岩見沢校, 専任講師 (10271727)
松沢 員子 神戸女学院大学, 人間学部, 教授 (80099952)
|Budget Amount *help
¥11,400,000 (Direct Cost: ¥11,400,000)
Fiscal Year 1997: ¥4,900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1996: ¥6,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,500,000)
1) Expansion of urban areas after the mid-50's have absorbed many indigenous people into cities. For exanple, about 70% of the native population are currently urban residents in Australia, New Zealand, and USA.
2) On the other hand, some indigenous groups, such as the Inuit and the Dene of Canada, started to move into cities only recently. There are still very few Inuit people in Canadian cities. Indigenous motivations to move to cities are caused by several socio-economic problems of northern settlements and reserves, including sexual and physical violence, alcoholism and lack of jobs.
3) In Taiwan, natives of the mountain regions recently started to move to cities as urban laborers attracted by the recent economic growth of the country. While they have their residences in cities, they behave like transient workers away from home in some aspects of their life.
4) The Aeta, one of indigenous groups in Philippine, who now live as medicine peddlers in cities, still keeping a life style char
acterized by high geographical mobility.
5) Historically, there are two formational types of urban natives. Some indigenous groups such as those in Mexico began to live in urban areas quite long ago. On the other hand, other groups just started to move into cities in the 1950's. Regarding the former type, there is a very interesting case of Mexico's highland Mixe, who have contributed to the development of the popular culture of the provincial capital.
During several research trips to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, USA,Mexico, Russia, Philippine and Taiwan, we found that while urban natives have assimilated themselves into way of life of the majority society, they also strongly retain their indigenous identity.
7) The integration of new life ways with indigenous identity makes joint projects between urban and other natives possible. We have found many examples of how urban natives play a central role indigenous movements of several countries. But we also find that political conflicts exist between different groups or sub-groups of urban natives in some countries. The Maori of New Zealand are typical of the latter. Less