|Budget Amount *help
¥1,800,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,800,000)
Fiscal Year 1997: ¥900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥900,000)
Fiscal Year 1996: ¥900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥900,000)
Sustainable agricultural development depends upon the conservation of ecosystem as well as economic improvement in Asia. It is therefore vitally important to establish ecologically sound and economically viable farming system, or eco-eco farming, under given economic and ecosystem conditions. Eco-eco farming does not necessarily eliminate completely but reduces the use of chemical inputs while increasing productivity, with the application of low input high output technology. This study aimed at searching directions and prospects for establishing such farming system, based on improvements in crop combination, cultivation techniques and marketing system, in relation to both rice and upland farming in the Asian context.
A series of micro-level studies was conducted in Japan and Southeast Asia : rice farming in Kasama-shi and Joetsu-shi in Japan and highland vegetable cultivation in Indonesia. It became clear that reduction in pesticide and chemical fertilizer, non-chemical weed control, differentiation of drying and processing facilities, and increased office work constituted main issues in the promotion of sustainable rice farming. Chemical fertilizer can be replaced by the use of compost and green manure, while pesticide application should be minimized. Weedicide may be replaced by fish, duck or paper mulch. Suitable technology must be developed for each location and support system established on a regional basis.
There exist many ecological and economic problems in highland vegetable cultivation in the tropics, including severe soil erosion, heavy dependence on pesticide, and fluctuating prices. Intercropping systems appeared to present a positive direction in future development. As certain combinations of crops are considered, for instance, to reduce pest and disease damage, it is necessary to study inter-cropping with respect to supplementary or complementary relationships, and eco-eco farming systems must be established on these biological features.