|Budget Amount *help
¥6,600,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,600,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥2,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,200,000)
Fiscal Year 2000: ¥2,100,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1999: ¥2,300,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,300,000)
This project was the joint research project among three universities for promoting academic exchange agreements. Other than two staffs of GSID, Nagoya University, four staffs from the Faculty of Public Affairs, University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB) and three staffs from the Faculty of Social and Political Science (FISIPOL), Gadjah Mada University joined with the project team. The first year in 1999, we had the joint field research at East Mindoro Province in the Philippines. In 2000, we went to Sleman District, Yogyakarta special province, Indonesia. In the third year, all were invited to Nagoya, Japan to have an international symposium. Papers presented became the special issue of GSID journal "Forum of International Development Studies" No20.
The poverty alleviation policies in developing countries have been the pet projects supported strongly by international organizations and donors. Politicians well recognize the importance of the budget allocation for that purpose. Our re
search focused upon the actual implementation of poverty alleviation and to reconsider the new policy direction from the research results. First, we found the standard for calculating poverty line was very much different between the Philippines and Indonesia. In both countries, there co-exist several different standards. Moreover, the recent trend of poverty calculation departs from the income and takes much importance to the social isolation where poor people are difficult to be empowered Eventually, the poverty line arguments became more confused. Secondly, we found the argument between who are the poor people and actual pro-poor policies are very different. So called pro-poor policies are just the social development policies that can cover poor people too. When we visited slum rehabilitation cite in a city, the majority of people were the people above the poverty line. Targeting poor people were weak. Moreover, government loans targeting poor people were often lent to ordinary businessmen because the village government worried no good return rate when they loan poor people. "We are not so brave," a village government staff said to us.
Both countries pursue the decentralization and it is now the world trend as a part of decentralization in developing countries. But largely poverty alleviation policies are still pursued by the central government special fund. At the local government level, their job covers wide range and poverty alleviation policies are important but a minor part. Grass -root NGOs practice many innovative trials but they are largely small.
In conclusion, we found the following points. It is necessary to have more good "models" of local governments and NGOs and proliferate them to other units. Microfinance pursued by NGOs should be refined and supported. Though there are difficulties in microfinance movements, still it is one of the best ways for poverty alleviation. Economic development nation wide is another important way for preparing more job opportunities. Less