|Budget Amount *help
¥13,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥13,500,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥4,400,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,400,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥4,800,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,800,000)
Fiscal Year 2000: ¥4,300,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,300,000)
Three archaeological sites in southeastern Turkey and southern Jordan were investigated.
Results of animal bone remains from Prepottery Neolithic and Pottery Neolithic levels (c. 10000- 7500 bp) at Cayonu suggest that domestic animals, especially sheep and goats, became increasingly important in the late and final PPNB periods. This trend continues into the Pottery Neolithic, Domestication process of pigs seems to have progressed gradually over the entire period of Prepottery Neolithic. Thus it was suggested that the process of domestication differed between species.
Continuous occupation from Prepottery Neolithic to Pottery Neolithic was found at Akarcay Tepe in southeastern Turkey. Oldest type of pottery in the region was found, suggesting a connection with the Neolithic culture in northern Syria. Analysis of animal bones is currently being carried out. Domestic sheep, goats, and pigs were present at the site.
The results of three seasons of excavation at Qa'Abu Tulayha in the southern
Jordanian desert suggest that The shift to nomadic pastoralism had already started by the late Neolithic. Although seemingly like a small settlement, the structures found at the site were actually a series or burial cairns and pseudo-houses. Excavation of burial cairns indicated changes in the burial practice, from the one limited to nomad chiefs to the one including individuals of the lower social class as well. Comparison of burial practice provided clues for investigating the origin of the nomadic pastoralists, whether they have originated from sedentary farmers or from nomadic hunter-gatherers.
In addition, research of Tell el-Kerkh, a Neolithic site in northern Syrian steppe was carried out in order to fill the geographical and temporal gaps between southeastern Anatolia and southern Levant. Study of faunal remains from the PPNB and early Pottery Neolithic layers is in progress.
The results of this project help understanding the process of domestication at sedentary settlements in the Taurus foothills in southeastern Anatolia. The establishment of developed pastoral economy in the steppe region of southeastern Turkey and northern Syria would be understood by comparing the faunal remains from Cayonu, Akarcay, and Tell el-Kerkh. The beginning of pastoral nomadism in the arid region of Southwest Asia is illustrated by the excavation results of Qa'Abu Tulayha.
In the future research, we need to investigate faunal remains from Prepottery Neolithic sites in further east, in the Zagros foothill region. Also, it is necessary to investigate the faunal remains of sedentary Neolithic sites located adjacent to the arid region. Less