A Historical Study on the Debates about the Public Nature of Schools in the Multicultural Nation, U.S.A.
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants |
|Research Institution||Tohoku University |
OMOMO Toshiyuki Tohoku University, Graduate School of Education, Professor, 大学院・教育学研究科, 教授 (10201386)
SAKAMOTO Tatsuro Soka University, School of Education, Professor, 教育学部, 教授 (60153912)
TSUBOI Yoshimi Aichi University of Education, School of Education, Professor, 教育学部, 教授 (50115664)
OGAWA Yoshikazu Tohoku University, Graduate School of Education, Associate Professor, 大学院・教育学研究科, 助教授 (90284223)
KODAMA Shigeo Ochanomizu University, Faculty of Letters and Education, Associate Professor, 文教育学部, 助教授 (40296760)
NAKAMURA Masako Obirin University, School of International Studies, Professor, 国際学部, 教授 (10227879)
立川 明 国際基督教大学, 教養学部, 教授 (70119056)
|Project Period (FY)
2001 – 2003
Completed (Fiscal Year 2003)
|Budget Amount *help
¥8,900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥8,900,000)
Fiscal Year 2003: ¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,000,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥3,900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,900,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥3,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,000,000)
|Keywords||school / public nature / U.S.A. / diversity / historical study|
The purpose of this study is to analyze the debates about the public nature of schools historically, and to clarify the problems of the current school reforms. We paid special attentions not only to the relations between the state and the market but also to the contradiction between the maintenance of commonness and the recognitions of differences. The main findings are as follows.
1. In the founding era, B.Rush tried to make a unity among diversities by fostering morals. On the other hand, T.Jefferson's education bills did not use the words of 'public school,' 'private school' or 'common school.'
2. In the common school movement era, H.Mann's annual reports of the secretary of the board of education contained both words of 'public school' and 'common school,' and differentiated those from 'private school' in terms of the guarantees of commonness.
3. There are different understandings about the creation of special education classes around the turn of the 19th century to the 20th century. While some people consider this as a response to children deviating from the ordinary classes under the strong demands of bureaucracy and efficiency, others consider this as a response to children with different needs.
4. In the recognition of identity differences, and in the choice and evaluation systems based upon this recognition, there is a possibility of harmonizing the equality which a welfare state requires and the freedom which a market requires. However, today's federal educational policies may introduce the 'politics of exclusion and inclusion,' which will conflict with making this harmony. Further, today's excessive deregulation which includes collective bargaining of teachers might impair the public nature of schools.
5. About higher education, State flagship universities are being more and more privatized, and these 'privatized' 'flagship universities' will compete with prestigious private universities in scientific researches.
Report (4 results)
Research Products (19 results)