Study on reasonable accommodations and developing of entrance examination for student with visual impairment in National Center for University Entrance Examination.
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants |
|Research Institution||OKAYAMA UNIVERSITY |
FUJII Toshitaka OKAYAMA UNIVERSITY, Prof., 教育学部, 教授 (50033634)
SHIMURA Hiroshi Fukuoka University of Education, professor, 教育学部, 教授 (80106153)
FUJIYOSHI Mamoru National Center for University Entrance Examination, professor, 研究開発部, 教授 (20190085)
YAMAGUCHI Hioshi Hyogo University of Teacher Education, professor, 学校教育学部, 教授 (80066414)
OHBA Shigeji Jyoetsu University of Education, professor, 学校教育学部, 教授 (10194276)
KATOH Hiroshi Tsukuba College of Technology, Assistant Prof., 助教授 (50177466)
|Project Period (FY)
2001 – 2003
Completed (Fiscal Year 2003)
|Budget Amount *help
¥12,100,000 (Direct Cost: ¥12,100,000)
Fiscal Year 2003: ¥1,400,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,400,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥2,900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,900,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥7,800,000 (Direct Cost: ¥7,800,000)
|Keywords||the number and quality of the Braille question / cassette-tape in the university entrance exami. / candidate with visual impairment in USA / candidate with visual impairment in Germany / candidate with visual impairment in UK / candidate with visual impairment in Sweden / candidate with visual impairment in China / 視覚障害入試の音声出題 / ドイツの視覚障害大学生 / イギリスの視覚障害大学生 / 中国の視覚障害大学生 / アメリカの視覚障害大学生 / フインランドの視覚障害大学生 / スェーデンの視覚障害受験生 / 点字入試問題の量的適正化 / 点字入試問題の質的妥当性 / 点字問題の量的適正化 / 触図の要素 / 触図作成のガイドライン / ドイツの視覚障害障害受験生|
This research, consisting of four studies, explored reasonable quantity and quality of questions to be answered and the proper ways of presentations of the questions for students with visual impairment who take the university entrance examination.
Study 1. Current situations in foreign countries : A field study
The results of the field study indicated that Western countries did not necessarily focus their attentions on reasonability or fairness of accommodations for students with visual impairment in the university entrance examination. Instead, almost all of the countries focused more on the improvement of the quota system or on the moderate adjustment within the general competition. Only China was not aware of issues regarding the use of a quota system-and brailled questions.
Study 2. Reasonable accommodations in the number of questions : An experimental study
Utilizing questions of the past entrance examinations, two groups were compared in terms of the relationship between the quantity
of questions and the time taken to answer them. One group was presented the brailled questions and the other was presented the printed ones. Specifically, the effects of the decrease in the number of questions on the answering process were analyzed across the two groups. The results indicated that reducing the number of questions provided for students with visual impairment did not influence the fairness of decision.
Study 3. Reasonable accommodations in the quality of questions : An experimental study
This study examined reasonability of the use of alternatives to tables and figures attached in the questions to be answered. The alternatives included (a) explaining the tables and figures in a text mode and (b) eliminating the questions including tables and figures and substituting the questions that did not include tables and figures. In addition, utilizing several components of tactile forms (e.g., caption, figure, graph), this study attempted to formulate the process of transformation from original figures to tactile ones although the formulation in figure transformation was considered as much more difficult than in text transformation. As a result of this experiment, a foundation in developing a guideline of this process was established.
Study 4. Flexibility of the presentation format : An experimental study
This study examined the impact of test media on answering processes (e.g., scores, time taken to answer questions) of students with visual impairment and those without visual impairment. Whereas students with visual impairment were presented questions in digital voice, cassette-tape voice, and braille, those without visual impairment were in digital voice, cassette-tape voice, and printed texts. The results of this analysis suggested that both digital voice and cassette-tape voice could be used as an alternative to printed texts for students with visual impairment who take the university entrance examination. Less
Report (4 results)
Research Products (31 results)