|Budget Amount *help
¥2,100,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,100,000)
Fiscal Year 2004: ¥600,000 (Direct Cost: ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 2003: ¥500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,000,000)
The research is to explore the possibilities of interpretation in performance of Beethoven's Piano Sonatas. It was done with the best effort to look into as many available scores, faximile, literature, references, and audio materials as possible.
Between the mid 19^<th> century and mid 20^<th> century, various editions were published, in which editors took freedom to add many interpretative markings to Beethoven's score. From those editions, one can presume that performers of the time interpreted Beethoven's works with free and imaginative ideas.
However, since the second half of the 20^<th> century, publication of the urtext became more popular. As a result, interpretations in performances, influenced by urtext, became standerized and lost individualities. Because performers, trying to obey composer's own markings faithfully, tend to refrain from reading scores with flexible imagination and understanding the meanings between notes, which aren't necessarily written down clearly.
Through looking into various scores and faximile, it became clear that there are places Beethoven did not mark any dynamic markings. It might have been Beethoven's intention that those places were to be played with different kind of expression from dynamics. However, in many ‘urtext' editions, many dynamic markings were supplied, instead of being left without.
In the first place, Beethoven's markings are meant for the instrument of his time, fortepiano, which has very different structure and sound effect from that of our time. Therefore, those markings have to be reconsidered when applying it to modem piano. Opportunities of trying various fortepianos throughout the world gave the idea of how to create the sound, which Beethoven must have intended, on the modern piano. To aim for the same kind of sound effect as fortepiano from modern piano, one has to think and work very hard with using many different techniques.