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¥4,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,000,000)
Fiscal Year 2004: ¥600,000 (Direct Cost: ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 2003: ¥600,000 (Direct Cost: ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 2002: ¥1,100,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,100,000)
Fiscal Year 2001: ¥1,700,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,700,000)
With thrombosis a major cause of death in Japan and Western world, thrombin-inhibitory agents and fibrinolytic agents are sought. Fermented foods showed physiological activity such as thrombosis-preventing activity and fibrinolytic activity.
In general, the conversion of carbohydrate into ethanol requires the action of alcohol dehydrogenase produced by the yeast S.cerevisiae during ethanol production, and therefore S.cerevisiae has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer and sake. However, in the present study, alcoholic beverages were produced using only mushrooms (basidiomycetes) because they also have alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Mushroom produced alcohol in both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions, although S.cerevisiae cannot achieve this in the aerobic condition. It therefore seems that alcohol fermentation by mushrooms depended on both the EMP pathway and ED pathway, while only the EMP pathway is used by S.cerevisiae. Furthermore, the conversion
of carbohydrate (rice) into fermentable sugars is performed by the action of amylases produced by a fungus, A.oryzae, during sake production, and S.cerevisiae (alcohol dehydrogenase) and A.oryzae (amylase) have been used to make sake. In this research, sake was produced using only mushrooms because they have both alcohol dehydrogenase and amylase activity. These alcoholic beverages produced by mushrooms contained β-D-glucan, which is known to have preventive effects against cancer, and they also showed thrombosis-preventing activity (anti-coagulative activity) and fibrinolytic activity. Thus, alcohol beverages made using mushrooms seem to be a functional food source which can be expected to have preventive effects against cancer and thrombosis. Furthermore, lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Streptococcus genera, have long been used in making cheese since they are potent lactate dehydrogenase producers. A milk-clotting enzyme is also necessary to make cheese. Recently, we discovered that some mushrooms, including Schizophyllum commune, possess lactate dehydrogenase and a milk-clotting enzyme. We therefore produced a cheese-like food with S. commune in anticipation that its consumption could help to inhibit cancer and thrombosis, as well as having other health benefits. Miso is traditional fermented food in Japan, and A.oryzae, Pediococcus halophilus and Saccharomyces rouxii are used to make miso because they have a potent ability to produce amylase and protease, lactate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively. Recently, we have discovered that some mushrooms also possess amylase, protease, lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. We produced a miso-like food with mushrooms because we hypothesized that this miso may have a preventative effect against thrombosis and cancer, as well as other health benefits (health food and functional food).
Therefore, utilization of different fermentative microorganisms such as mushrooms could fuel the development of new fermented foods that have attractive functional properties. Less