KIZU Ryoichi Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Associate Professor, 自然科学研究科, 助教授 (80143915)
TAMURA Kenji National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Science Division, Epidemiology and International Health Research Section, Senior researcher, 環境健康研究領域 疫学・国際保健研究室, 主任研究員 (10179898)
鳥羽 陽 金沢大学, 薬学部, 助手 (50313680)
|Budget Amount *help
¥9,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥9,500,000)
Fiscal Year 2004: ¥3,700,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,700,000)
Fiscal Year 2003: ¥5,800,000 (Direct Cost: ¥5,800,000)
Airborne particulates were collected in seven cities in the Pan-Japan Sea countries, Shenyang (China), Vladivostok (Russia), Seoul (South Korea), Kitakyushu, Kanazawa, Tokyo and Sapporo (Japan), in winter and summer. In addition, particulates from domestic coal-burning stoves and particulates from diesel-engine automobiles were collected. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fluoranthene, pyrene (Pyx), benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and four nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), 1,3-, 1,6-, 1,8-dinitropyrenes, and 1-nitropyrenes (1-Np) in the extracts from the particulates were analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence and chemiluminescence defections, respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PAHs in Shenyang and Vladivostok were substantially higher than those in Seoul, Tokyo, Sapporo, Kitakyushu and Kanazawa. However, the mean atmospheric concentrations of NPAHs were at the same levels in every city except for Kitakyushu. Obvious seasonal variations (winter > summer) in the PAR and NPAH concentrations were observed in each city. In order to study the major contributors of atmospheric PAHs and NPAHs in these cities, cluster analysis and factor analysis were used and three large clusters were identified. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of 1-Np to Pyr were significantly smaller in Shenyang, Vladivostok and Kitakyushu and the values were close to those of particulates in the exhaust from coal stoves. However, the ratios were larger in Seoul, Kanazawa, Tokyo and Sapporo and the values were close to those of particulates in the exhaust from diesel-engine automobiles. Our results show that the concentration ratio of 1-Np to Pyr is an useful indicator of the contributions made by diesel-engine vehicles and coal combustion systems to particulates in urban air.