AOKI Hiroshi Yokohama National University, Faculty of Business Administration, Associate Professor (30258826)
SAWAI Minoru Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics, Professor (90162536)
TAKAMATSU Toru Osaka University of Economics, Faculty of Information Management, Professor (70288744)
TAKAHASHI Yuzo Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Professor (60055225)
OKAMOTO Takuji The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Associate Professor (30262421)
|Budget Amount *help
¥15,130,000 (Direct Cost: ¥14,500,000、Indirect Cost: ¥630,000)
Fiscal Year 2007: ¥2,730,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥630,000)
Fiscal Year 2006: ¥3,700,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,700,000)
Fiscal Year 2005: ¥4,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,200,000)
Fiscal Year 2004: ¥4,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,500,000)
This research program consisted of seven areas, (1) consumer electronics, (2) industrial electronics, (3) machine industry, (4) chemical industry, (5) networks of engineers, (6) industry-university linkage, and (7) research collaboration policy. Each conducted historical study on research collaboration for the period up to 1961.
The study of (6), using data on institutionally co-authored papers in academic society journals in engineering, discovered that the research collaboration could be found easily in the 1930s and increased in number in wartime, decreased in number after the end of the war, and surged again up to unprecedented levels in the 1950s. The last fact overthrew the commonly accepted vague opinion that advocated long inactivity of university-industry linkages after the war.
The respective parts conducted studies of such subjects as (1) radio sets and vacuum tubes, (2) semiconductors, (3) machine tools, (4) synthetic acetic acid, (5) the networks of radio engineers, (6) the
comparison of university-industry linkages between the US and Japan in the physicists' case, and (7) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Research Neighborhood Groups, etc. The studies of the development process of vacuum tubes after the First World War and that of semiconductors after the Second World War revealed that the relations among actors on research and development changed drastically between them. Research collaboration, never existed in the early period of the former, played a significant role in the beginning of the latter, which showed the importance of promotion of research collaboration by such institutions as Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Research Neighborhood Groups, etc. The grassroots collaboration of radio engineers also began in the prewar days and flourished vigorously after the war. These case studies and the above data on papers clearly show that the social conditions for research collaboration in Japan underwent substantial changes from the 1930s to the 1950s. Less