IKEDA Mitsuhiro Yamanashi Prefectural University, Faculty of Human and Social Educare, Associate Professor, 人間福祉学部, 助教授 (40342026)
ICHIKAWA Makoto Rikkyo University, Faculty of Literature, Associate Professor, 文学部, 助教授 (60308088)
SUZUKI Koro University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Research Associate, 大学院・人間総合科学研究科, 助手 (10344847)
|Budget Amount *help
¥3,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,000,000)
Fiscal Year 2005: ¥1,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,200,000)
Fiscal Year 2004: ¥1,800,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,800,000)
This study is aimed to clarify present situation and challenges of environmental education in Southeast Asia countries ;
Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines, from three viewpoints as the following :
1.The framework of formal or non-formal environmental education,
2.The situation of reflection of value, such as Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, etc., and
3.Features in the environmental education curricula, textbooks and teaching materials, and the educational method which are ;
(1)International common feature such as global environmental consciousness,
(2)Difference found from the viewpoint such as cultural environmental view, of value education, such as traditional culture, religion, etc., and
(3)Difference in the educational method
In the school education of each country, the curricula of the environmental education across boundaries consisting mainly in social studies and science are performed. NGO's activities are used for the experienced environmental education as supplemen
tation of formal education.
In the textbooks and teaching materials, the contents treated the religion moral value over environment are also emphasized. They are natural faith of each region, or Buddhist events in Thailand ; the Islamic or values, such as environment as a creature of God", and "human beings' responsibility for "environment", etc. in Malaysia ; and the Catholic principle of Philippines. In Singapore, there are little religious descriptions in connection with the environment in the textbooks.
The educational method emphasizing on experience and critical thinking has many portions common in each country, and can be considered as global standard approach.
However, cultural-religious sense of values of each country is not necessarily functioning as an effective factor for expanding global environmental consciousness.
Moreover, there are also examples of connection between government organization and NGO (NPO) s, and extremely strong Government control, so there is a danger that only convenient environmental education for the State will be partially emphasized. Less