ITO Kimiko Kyoto University, Graduate School of letters, Professor, 文学研究科, 教授 (00159865)
OSAWA Mari University of Tokyo, Institute of Social Science, Professor, 社会科学研究所, 教授 (50143524)
HASHIMOTO Hiroko Jumonji University, Faculty of Social and Information Sciences, Professor, 社会情報学部, 教授 (60286119)
HARA Hiroko Josai International University, Faculty of Humanities Department of Inter-Cultural Studies, Visiting Professor, 大学院人文科学研究科, 教授 (90120831)
BANDO Mariko Showa Women's University, President, 教授 (00384628)
|Budget Amount *help
¥14,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥14,900,000)
Fiscal Year 2006 : ¥10,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,800,000)
Fiscal Year 2005 : ¥4,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,100,000)
It has been pointed out that Japan is a huge destination country for trafficked women and girls. Since 2001, the US Department of State has placed the Japanese government's action to combat trafficking in tier 2.
This research focusing on trafficking for sexual exploitation in East/South East Asia has 3 pillars: 1) Capture present situations in Japan, 2) Elucidate actual situation at source and transit points (mainly Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar, and the Philippines), and 3) "Demand" for sex-industry where victims are exploited. Research methods were: 1) Questionnaire survey and interviews to Japanese politicians, government institutions and NGOs, 2) Interviews to international organizations, foreign governments, overseas NGOs, 3) national representative survey on perceptions of trafficking and commercial sex transactions.
Interviews conducted overseas and literature review were useful in grasping the social/economical background and features, family situation in source points, and modus
operandi of the brokers. Research in Japan showed that the type and tactics of trafficking is increasingly becoming complex (cf. transit in multiple countries, false marriage).
Furthermore, the large-scale questionnaire survey results showed perception gaps between Japanese and concerned people in other countries, that is, international communities including US government holds a view that traffickers should be prohibited and penalized, victims shall be protected and decriminalized, and reducing the "demand" is crucial for prevention. Tough regulation of women who are exploited at the bottom chain of supply side is never referred.
On the other hand, in Japan, although 75% of the respondents consider that foreign women in sex/entertainment industry are "working under unavoidable circumstances", responses to the question asking how to deal with them split between "shall take tough measures to apprehend" and "shall provide protection and support".
In order to combat human trafficking, it is important to strengthen the victim support and to reform gender-stereotypical attitude which is the breeding ground for sex-industry in Japan. Less