MATSUDA Takanori Shiga University, Faculty of Education, Professor (90199802)
YAMAZAKI Kotoko Shiga University, Faculty of Education, Professor (50024013)
MATSUMURA Yoshihisa Hamnan University, Faculty of International Communication, Professor (80351675)
ONODERA Jun City University, Faculty of International Culture, Associate Professor (50292206)
KOJIMA Yasuo Kobe City University, Foreign Language, Associate Professor (80234764)
中川 秀一 明治大学, 商学部, 助教授 (00298415)
|Budget Amount *help
¥9,290,000 (Direct Cost: ¥8,900,000、Indirect Cost: ¥390,000)
Fiscal Year 2007: ¥1,690,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,300,000、Indirect Cost: ¥390,000)
Fiscal Year 2006: ¥3,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,500,000)
Fiscal Year 2005: ¥4,100,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,100,000)
The purpose of this study is to develop a handy "Chemical Vacuum Pump" which evacuates from atmospheric pressure to vacuum. In the first year, the Li based alloys, which were produced by mechanical alloying with Si, Cu and Fe, were investigated. For the case of Li-Fe alloy, powders quickly absorb nitrogen gas. However, the amount of absorbed gas is limited, since Li is consumed by the reducing reaction with ion oxides covering the iron powder surface. In the second year, to improve the efficiency, the mechanical milling of Li with oxides which is more stable than lithium oxides were carried out. Thus, the powders milling with alumina and magnesia showed very active reactivity with nitrogen gas. Especially, Li-alumina alloy can absorb air (nitrogen and oxygen), which has not been reported before. In the last year, we also investigated nitrides. In the case of Li_3N, it also reacts with oxygen gas showing two stage reactions, much higher than with nitrogen gas. The reason of this charact
eristic is attributable to the phase transition from alpha-Li_3N to beta-Li_3N and the formation of complex of Li-O-N.
Our study team contains not only human geographers but also professional architects or cultural anthropologist and so on, whose collaboration makes our study very fruitful. We made field research in China and Korea every year. It was very exciting experience for us to make such collaborative field study, which produced our results.
Our results are listed below:
1) The most basic character of special structure of China, mainly the nation made of Han ethnic group, is its closedness. In China, especially old urban area, we can easily find its closedness in every house, street and urban community. For example in Beijing, very boons Si-he-yuan (one estate made of four houses) is typical traditional residential style which is closed by thick and high wall, which is a part of one house and has no window on t she, to outer space. And the space which is made from such Si-he-rum style estates is called Hu-tong (a word &Mongolian origin meaning narrow street), is closed by walls of estates on both sides and sometimes by the gate or decorated arch which has its name plate. And the city itself presents the basic closed character in Chinese special structure. Every Chinese city, nominal or administrative status above prefectute, Xian, has city wall around its residential area. Especially its long and thick wall of the capital city Beijing gave foreigners, including Western people, very strong impression of imperial power.
2) This closedness found in Chinese spatial structure is not equally bind in Korea and Japan. Korean city has city wall, but its size is not so great and not so universal in its country. Japan has no tradition of constructing city wall around its traditional city. And in the structure of everyday living space, Korea and Japan have some common character In urban area they have no closedness as same as Chinese Si-he-yuan. But in the inner structure of living space of every estate or house, Korea is different from Japan.
3) In East Asia it is said that in ancient times China had strong influence to other regions including Korean peninsula and Japanese islands. So we are inclined to consider that spatial structure or residential style had also its origin in Chinese cultural diffusion. But by our study it is clear that Japan and Korea have their original tradition for making their spatial structure Less