|Budget Amount *help
¥17,030,000 (Direct Cost: ¥13,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥3,930,000)
Fiscal Year 2009: ¥4,030,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥930,000)
Fiscal Year 2008: ¥4,810,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,110,000)
Fiscal Year 2007: ¥8,190,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,300,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,890,000)
The study of earlier literature revealed that the IMR and MMR of Kalimantan Barat state show higher levels than data from the rest of greater Indonesia. Moreover in a comparison between cities (Pontianak city) and remote areas (Prefecture Sanggau), the IMR and MMR values are even higher in remote areas. Since the values in the 2 particular places stated as the research zone for this research are significantly high, we would like to investigate the reason for this. To date, no literature has been shown to research or document the relationship between MMR and sexual behavior and reproductive activity in either males or females in Indonesia. Therefore we intend to plan and conduct interdisciplinary research, with the objectives listed below, to investigate the relationship of childbirth customs conducted in the past, in more subjects in the same region.
In this research, the following matters should be clarified regarding reproductive health in Kalimantan Barat state. 1) The investigation
was done through a questionnaire about knowledge of the sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS to junior high school students 2) This study is a quantities' and descriptive design. The investigation was done through a questionnaire about views of gender differences (By Itou, 1997) that is composed of 30 questions. 3) "Sexual Health Study for Japanese National University student" (The public welfare science HIV transmission syndrome research : 2 behavioral science groups and 2000) was executed and the questionnaire survey that converted an Indonesian language (Part was retouched and corrected) was executed to local populace. 4) To conduct an actual condition survey on sexual education in schools, households and local communities. 5) The mental attitude of both males and females in various generation groups regarding mentality on marriage, pregnancy, birth and contraception. 6) The residents' attitudes towards TBA and healthcare workers (especially local midwives) concerning pregnancy and birth. 7) About Family Planning 8) About Customs Foods of maternal and child.
The high school students in Indonesia were significantly more affirmative for 30 questions than Japanese high school students. Indonesian high school students approved of gender roles, for example, the question about child care, "Mother must not work, leaving their children with someone", or "Child care must be by the mother." Indonesian high school students were not more affirmative than Japanese students, and not more insistent than Japanese students. Next, the affirmative rate for questions of total wasn't significantly different between male and female in either Indonesia or Japan. However the affirmative rate by questions was significantly different : in 14 questions in Indonesia, and 10 questions in Japan.
The affirmative rate of the dangerous recognition connected with DV was at high rate in the high school student in Indonesia the overall and overwhelmingly. However 27.1% and a Japanese boy is from the boy 13.6% of Indonesia to the high rate in the item "It is necessary to permit if it is apologized even if violence is done." The majority had affirmed it in Indonesia excluding two items of "It did not beat directly and even damaging it in the sanguinary language was not violence" and "It was necessary to permit if it was apologized even if violence was done"
As for the accuracy rate of knowledge, concerning AIDS, there was a difference by the item, and the accuracy rate concerning contact with HIV-positive was low in 30.9% to 74.5% regardless of the age. In the man and woman difference, the man was a little high level. Anxiety of HIV transmission 27.7% and "No" 72.8%. 3. The condom : The condom use is a little from an economical, discriminatory image though the effect of a man and woman and no question at the age, a shallow knowledge concerning HIV/AIDS, useful condom for contraception and the HIV transmission prevention is understood.
Community Midwives have gradually been accepted by implementing free maternal checks, assisting in deliveries, health education etc and additionally by cooperating with Traditional Birth Attendants (hereafter called TBAs). Residents seek spiritual care from TBAs as well as care based on medical knowledge and have been using both BDDs and TBAs, according to their roles, as the situation demands.
The Indonesian high school students were more affirmative of sexual distinction than Japanese students, and the affirmative rate of questions was different between male and female. Indonesia and there was a significant difference in seven items in Japan when the gender gap was seen. There were a lot of girls, and there were more intentionally as many as six item of a high ratio from the boy, and were a lot of dangerous recognition of girl's DV of Indonesia. A lot of boys were opposite and existed, and however, there were intentionally as many as six item of a high ratio, and were a lot of dangerous recognition of boy's
The sex education and the prejudice and discrimination to the condom are lost as enlightenment concerning the HIV/AIDS prevention using thoroughness and the mass media of the sex education in an educational site and the home for the age that is before presenting, and experiencing sex of information on HIV and HIV examination. Moreover, guidance by the religious leader is also effective.
In order for Community Midwives to undertake all the roles of TBAs in the future, it is necessary to understand and implement knowledge of the roles that residents expect of TBAs.
In Pontianak city, the county capital, it has been observed that there is a movement towards actively implementing sexual education, for example how to wear a condom. These activities are mainly conducted by NPO groups supported by the local government, in order to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Programs providing more specific advice, at junior high schools and high schools, have also been initiated. Having interviewed teachers (Civics, Biology and Religion teachers) that actually provide sexual education, however, at junior high schools and high schools, it was revealed that in the actual classes, only ethical issues were discussed and no specific advice is provided. When we mentioned the practical aspects of Japanese sexual education, we were requested to demonstrate the actual education provided, in the Indonesian language. Furthermore, interest was shown, in gaining knowledge as to the implementation of peer counseling in providing adolescent education in Japan. In an investigation conducted in West Kalimantan, a questionnaire survey was used to gain information regarding sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS, DV, sexual behavior and reproduction. Additionally, interviews were conducted with TBAs, local midwifes, married and un-married male and female local residents, FGDs, sexual education personnel and also government officials. The results showed that social/cultural background, the level of religious and education had strong effects on sexual behavior or reproduction, and also that there is an imbalance in the power relationship between males and females. It was also suggested that the future direction for improvement can be driven by the involvement of education. Despite the limitation of acquiring information in one part of Indonesia, it shows that analysis is required from various perspectives. Considering the Asian region as a whole, it is observed that improvement in IMR or MMR, sexually transmitted disease, HIV/AIDS can be seen in some countries but not in others. We would like to study, whether these differences are related to, for instance, male-female power relationships or adolescent education, by analyzing the current situation, problems, and countermeasures of each Asian country using common criterion and investigation methods. Less