|Budget Amount *help
¥186,290,000 (Direct Cost: ¥143,300,000、Indirect Cost: ¥42,990,000)
Fiscal Year 2012: ¥34,970,000 (Direct Cost: ¥26,900,000、Indirect Cost: ¥8,070,000)
Fiscal Year 2011: ¥33,410,000 (Direct Cost: ¥25,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥7,710,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥33,410,000 (Direct Cost: ¥25,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥7,710,000)
Fiscal Year 2009: ¥33,410,000 (Direct Cost: ¥25,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥7,710,000)
Fiscal Year 2008: ¥51,090,000 (Direct Cost: ¥39,300,000、Indirect Cost: ¥11,790,000)
We studied evolution and development of (a) active meta-access to agents’ own mental states referred to as awareness and self-reflection, (b) understanding of others’ mental states often labeled mindreading, and (c) interrelationship of the two by phylogenetic and ontogenetic comparisons. We have found that species including primates, dogs, and birds share such cognitive meta-processes. Nonhuman primates have been found to show excellent understanding of others as shown by their evaluating third-party interactions that have no value to themselves. We have also found that understanding others is enhanced by corresponding experience of the agents. This suggests strong relationship between understandingself and understanding others.