|Budget Amount *help
¥20,670,000 (Direct Cost: ¥15,900,000、Indirect Cost: ¥4,770,000)
Fiscal Year 2011: ¥5,590,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,300,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,290,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥4,810,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,110,000)
Fiscal Year 2009: ¥4,810,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,110,000)
Fiscal Year 2008: ¥5,460,000 (Direct Cost: ¥4,200,000、Indirect Cost: ¥1,260,000)
In Africa a number of tone languages are spoken. The characteristics of African tone languages are that lexical function is low but grammatical function is high in comparison to Asian tone languages. Thus, for example, many Bantu languages distinguish tenses/aspects by tone alone, and relative clauses are sometimes rendered by tone alone. Akan of Ghana expresses genitive constructions by tone alone. These lexical functions of tone should be recognized as important characteristics of African tone languages.