|Budget Amount *help
¥43,550,000 (Direct Cost: ¥33,500,000、Indirect Cost: ¥10,050,000)
Fiscal Year 2013: ¥10,530,000 (Direct Cost: ¥8,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥2,430,000)
Fiscal Year 2012: ¥10,530,000 (Direct Cost: ¥8,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥2,430,000)
Fiscal Year 2011: ¥10,530,000 (Direct Cost: ¥8,100,000、Indirect Cost: ¥2,430,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥11,960,000 (Direct Cost: ¥9,200,000、Indirect Cost: ¥2,760,000)
Our findings on evolutionary diversity and adaptation of color vision and gustation in primates are summarized as follows. Atelines improved chromatic discrimination of dietary fruits through unique mutations in L/M opsin alleles. Against a norm, howler monkeys regained color vision variation through recombination between L and M opsin genes. By modeling visibility of dietary fruit to variations of color vision in capuchin monkeys, we showed that trichromacy would have advantage in long-distance detection. However, this advantage is judged not translated into fitness advantage based on 26 years survival and fertility data. By studying L/M opsin gene of tarsiers, we proposed that trichromacy evolved under dim light conditions. By investigating sensitivities of TAS2R16 bitter taste receptor gene, we found that the sensitivity in fact varied among primate species. We presented an evidence of eco-geographical diversification of bitter taste receptor genes among subspecies of chimpanzees.