|Budget Amount *help
¥45,240,000 (Direct Cost: ¥34,800,000、Indirect Cost: ¥10,440,000)
Fiscal Year 2013: ¥8,840,000 (Direct Cost: ¥6,800,000、Indirect Cost: ¥2,040,000)
Fiscal Year 2012: ¥10,660,000 (Direct Cost: ¥8,200,000、Indirect Cost: ¥2,460,000)
Fiscal Year 2011: ¥10,660,000 (Direct Cost: ¥8,200,000、Indirect Cost: ¥2,460,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥15,080,000 (Direct Cost: ¥11,600,000、Indirect Cost: ¥3,480,000)
Reverse genetics and spatial expression of genes encoding the three isoenzymes of cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1;1, GS1;2, and GS1;3) and two NADH-glutamatesynthases (NADH-GOGAT1 and NADH-GOGAT2) were characterized in rice. OsGS1;2 and OsNADH-GOGAT1 are important in the primary assimilation of ammonium taken up by rice roots. On the other hand, GS1;1 and NADH-GOGAT2 could be important in remobilization of nitrogen during natural senescence. Metabolite profiling data showed a crucial role of GS1;1 in coordinating metabolic balance in rice. Expression of OsGS1:3 was spikelet-specific, indicating that it is probably important in grain ripening and/or germination. Thus, these isoenzymes seem to possess distinct and non-overlapping functions and none was able to compensate for the individual function of another.