OHNISHI Takashi Technological University of Nagaoka, Associate Professor, 工学部, 助教授 (80143824)
OHTA Katsutoshi The University of Tokyo, Associate Professor, 工学部, 助教授 (10011149)
山田 学 東京大学, 工学部, 助教授 (40010839)
NAGAMINE Haruo Kinki University, Professor, 理工学部, 教授 (60172558)
KAWAKAMI Hidemitsu The University of Tokyo, Professor, 工学部, 教授 (20010671)
|Budget Amount *help
¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1987: ¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥2,000,000)
The purpose of this study is to be found urbanization process and housing system in the rapid growth urban sprawl area of large cities in South Asia through the view points of: 1. the of urban facilities as a promoting factor in urbanization. 2. classification of housing areas by development ways and residential environmental surveys. 3.the roles of some lows and financial support systems for housing developments. 4. the roles of urban transportation systems as one of urban infrastructure facilities.
The investigation ways are: 1. to make land use maps with housing developments and road network maps from aerial photos. 2. field surveys about housing typology. 3. questionnaire surveys about the attribute of residents, residential environment and travel behavior. 4. hearing from whom it is concerned (residents, planner, administrative agency, etc.)
We selected 3 cities as study areas: Bangkok (Thailand), Bandung (Indonesia) and Singapore, considering about the status of urbanization and th
e possibility of assistance of local institutes through the pre survey in 1985. We started these study programs in 1986 with Chulalongkorn University (Thailand), Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia) and National University of Singapore (Singapore). Based on the consequence of these studies, we held the International Conference at The University of Tokyo with all members in October, 1987.
Through these process, the characteristics of urbanization these cities is to be found as follows: 1.)These are 2 types of housing developments with urban infrastructure facilities. One of land subdivision development and another is ready-built housing development. Each type has both of housing for low incomers and high incomers. It is easy to identify each housing typology from the aerial photos because each of these housing areas has peculiar characteristics of physical conditions (development scale, area of each site, building coverage, pitch of buildings, garden),
2.) Promoting factors of urbanization are construction of arterial road and public facilities developments. The existing road networks connected to the new arterial road act as auxiliary trunk roads influenced by these development, and the area along this road begin to urbanize.
3.) Bus services to C.B.D. is available in arterial roads and also available in auxiliary trunk roads connected between residential areas and bus services on arterial roads. These services make these areas along the auxiliary road more convenient and and more housing areas are developed.
4.) Especially in Bangkok, Large housing estate has 100 or 500 housing units is developed far from the arterial road (about 5 km far away). Developer makes access road to the arterial road for the residents' convenient, and this access road act as a auxiliary road like 3 because of bus services connected to the arterial road starting. Along road, the other housing areas is developed as connected to this auxiliary road and this area begin to urbanize.
5.) Some new housing estates develop as connected to the existing housing estate because of some intentions of using urban infrastructure in the existing. Housing development like this with the development mentioned before causes insufficient situation of urban infrastructure facilities.
6.) Housing areas for low incomer are often developed accompanied by large housing estate construction, because the construction and large housing area cause more working opportunities there. From the questionnaire survey, it was found that 80% of employee of low incomer residents have jobs near their residense.
7.) In Bangkok study area, some low incomers lease the re subdiveded land (1 unit: 100 square meters to 150 square meters) on a part of land subdivision development area and built their houses on this land. Some low incomers rent old houses (sometime multiple dwellings) on ready-built housing development areas. Few low incomers make slum (or squatter: the number of this unit is only 2% of this study area.) In Bandung, the number of Kampon units is 25% of the study area, and this number is increasing as a housing devedlopment around here because of the same reason as 6.
8.) It was found that about 50% of employee on housing areas for high incomers go to work to C.B.D. This rate is higher in ready-built housing development area than land subdivision development area. The increasing rate of high incomers house unit is 50% in these 10 years. this rapid increasing causes more traffic congestion because of insufficient traffic capacity and the other urban problems for urban infrastructure facilities. Each housing development area with adequate urban infrastructure facilities looks like Well planned, but as a whole, urbanized area as a study area should be on of Non planned housing areas, so that district planning should be needed.
As mentioned above, the urban infrastructure facilities (arterial road construction and public facility development) and large housing estate development promote the urbanization in urban fringe area of large cities. One development causes the other development because of the increasing of working opportunities and improvement of public services, the areas urbanize more and more and makes Non Planned Housing areas as a consequences of this urbanization process. Less