程 〓 中国人民大学, 党史系, 副教授
LU Yao Professor,Fucalty of History,Shan-dong Universty., 歴史系, 教授
SATO Kimihiko Lecturer,Faculty of Foreign Language,Tokyo Univ.of Foreign Studies., 外国語学部, 講師 (10178717)
KOBAYASHI Kazumi Professor,Faculty of Foreign Language,Kanagawa Universty., 外国語学部, 教授 (70076595)
KUBOTA Bunji Professor,Faculty of Litterature,Japan Women's University., 文学部, 教授 (20060650)
CHENG Xiao Associate Professor,Fucalty of Communist Party's History,China People's Universi
The purpose of this social research is to analyze the fundamental structures of North- China's society.The monographs on This subject are not abundant.But some works,which Li Jing-han,Yang Mao-chun and the branch of social reseach in Mantetu crop.had already achieved,have been posing good many important problems on this subjects.Our studies must be started to certificate those problems which were formerly described by them.
And,we are interested in inspecting the issues which have been accumulated by social researches at Middle-China's and Southeast-China's areas,for instance,the studies on lineages by M.Freedman,the concept of"the structure of differential relations"by Fei Xiao-tong,the social relations of"Gan-qing"which was paied notices by M.H.Fried. All of these issues are of importance even for the studies on North-China's society. I think the certifications and inspectations on these problems by our data should make important contributions to analize some fundamental stuctures of
Our social research was accomplished at two cities and four provinces.Our study was carried out as follows: 24th December,1986-27th.Shan-dong province Ping-yuan prefecture Su-ji district Gang-zi-li zhuang. 27th December-30th.Hei-bei province Wei prefecture Da-ning cun,Hong-tao yuan,and Li-yuan tun. 31th December-3th January 1987.Shan-dong province Lin-qing city. 7th January-10th.Shan-dong province Ji-ning city. 10th January-12th.Shan-dong province Ju-ye prefecture Xue-fu-ji destrict Cao zhuang. 13th January-15th.Shan-dong province Gao-tang prefecture liu-li-si district.
The main items of this social research are; (1)the structures of the village self-government organizations, (2)the structures of lineage organizations and social life organizations, (3)folk-ligious faith. (4)the folk-ligious associations and armed secret-society groups in villages, (5)the organizations and actions of Christians,and (6)on the problems of Boxer's movements,especialy,it's readers,organization and relations with folk-religious associations.
The articles which are made known to some extent are as follows; (1)The village was managed by a village-head.A village-head was selected by a conference which was consisted of some lineage groups' head,and these lineages had comparatively large number of members.But,there was a tendency that the authorities and functions of the village-head was limited to the lowest possible level. This passive character of village's self-gavernment capacity corresponds to the issues which were frequently reported by many aughors.
(2)In all villages people generally worshipped the Guang-di God and Arth God.But in daily life,Godds were worshipped by aged women and did not interest well-matured men. The festivals(miao-hui)at the big village's shrines and temples usually summoned people from many villages of large area.On that day a crowd of people commerced products with each other,and the festivals carried very important functions for villagers to interchange.Following other examples,a famous temple was a pride of villagers and could suppot a concentration of them. In this way the characters of traditional festivals at shrines were very differnt in big village's famous shrines from those in small village.We should not decide hastily that characters.Generally speaking,acooperative supplication for village's public peace and order for themselves was usually a rare instance.
(3)A locaized lineage functioned as a basic unit for social life.Those localized lineages usually worked as a unit for a cooperate life for the election for a village-head,the payment of taxes and the self-defense by villagers.And a lineage-head was frequently asked to act as an intermediary when troubles were stirred up between villagers. But there was no opportunith for lineage's members to attend lineage meetings. The time when all members assembled together was the worshipping lineage's graves at spring.This ceremorny was not performed with all together in honor of their common ancesters,but each families went to their ancester's graves and separately worshipped by themselves.
(4)In traditional Chinese society,the Christians desired a good fate as ordinary people did.Mainly they devoutly praied for helps which could relieve them from their sivier situations,for instance,illness,famine and others.
(5)We can see a figuar of poor villages' life.Thier lineage's ties could not be depended on and social bonds used to ve very thin.I think in these conditions traditional Christians could compose their social influence over villagers.
(6)The master-disciple relationship which was made up through trainings of military arts could function to organize villagers.They could protected themselves practically by thir military arts and could turn to the master-disciple relation- ships to defend their families and properties from various violences.
(7)At Lin-qing city and Ji-nang city we could adked about the process of Canal's vicissitude and it's influences over local industry and trade.
The above instanced knowledge can be used as very available keyes to understand modern North-China's society and village's life.But the acquired materials at this social reseach are not enough to fully prove many issues on North-China's social structure. Especially,on the problems of folk-religous faith and folk-religious associations we have only scanty materials at this work.Those problems are left at next time work. Less