我部 政明 琉球大学, 法文学部, 助教授 (60175297)
MACHIDA Munehiro College of Law & Letters Associate Professor, 法文学部, 助教授 (10145518)
MAEKADO Akira Division of General Education Associate Professor, 教養部, 助教授 (60190287)
SHIMABUKURO Shinzo College of Law & Letters Professor, 法文学部, 教授 (40044862)
ISHIKAWA Tomonori College of Law & Letters Professor, 法文学部, 教授 (10044843)
GABE Massaki College of Law & Letters Associate Professor
|Budget Amount *help
¥15,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥15,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1989: ¥3,500,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1988: ¥12,000,000 (Direct Cost: ¥12,000,000)
The Third Research Expedition as a series of field research in Latin America was carried out in order to clarify the nature of emigration/immigration through scrutinizing the immigrants from Okinawa Prefecture as well as other parts of Japan.
During the first field research in 1988, all investigators excuted interview survey to individual immigrants using questionaire in the first place, then individual topical research were carnied out. The findings from the first field research are as follows: the Okinawan communities in Argentina, Peru, and Brasil have localized to limited number of places. At the same time, each community has been formed by limited number of groups of relatives and of same community origins in Okinawa. The Okinawan immigrants tend to engage in some limited number of occupations as well.
Unlike the issei immigrants, most of the niseis and sanseis do not show alignment with their issei immigrants. Under such circumstances, behavioral discrepancy between them due to dif
ference in cultural background and value system leads to weaken and crumble colonial community organization created and sustained by the issei immigrants. At the same time, it is true that the number of issei immigrants have steadly decreased over time.
During the second field research in 1989, both Bolivia and Brasil were covered. This time, we concentrated our field survey on community organization of the Japanese communities. Among the Japanese communities, those of communities formed by the Okinawan immigrants and descendants have rather strongly united organization structure compared with those of other parts of Japan. The Okinawan immigrants have central organization called Okinawa Kenjinkai that has Kenjinkaikan(building). Under the Kenjinkai, branch organization(shibu) functions in each community. In addition, there are many shi-cho-sonjinkai organization and even aza-jinkai often functions elsewhere. Such community organization of the Okinawan communities is different from those of other prefectures. And besides Kenjinkaikan, each Kenjinkai shibu has shibukaikan(building) where wedding party, dance party and other various community activities are held. Therefore, kenjinkaikan and shibukaikan function as important centers for informtion exchange.
In the past few years, due to hyperinflation and economic stagnation in Latin American countries, and great economic stride and economic prosperity in Japan on the other hand, a great number of young generations have migrated to Japan to work for "dekasegi." Such counter migration against the will and expectation of the issei immigrants has given serious impact on activity and function of the Japanese commnity organization.
So far Department of Geography together with investigators in economics, infromation science, political science has excuted field research in Latin America. Upon strong request both from the communities in Latin America and here in Okinawa, we plan to continue field research in Latin America in the near future. It should be reminded that immigration is now in now era, so that in the age of internationalization research should be approached not only from geography but also from various aspects. At the same time, new generations of niseis and sanseis are to be taken into account in the future research inquiry. Less