PIUS S. B. Director of Bamenda Branch Cameroon National Institute of Human Sciences, バメンダ分館, 館長
MASAO F. T. Head Tanzania National Museum of Natural History, 館長
ODA Makoto Senior Lecturer Fac. of Letters, St. Andrew's University, 文学部, 講師 (50214143)
AKUTSU Shouzou Associate Professor Fac. of Education, University of Shinsyuu, 教育学部, 助教授 (30201883)
KURITA Kazuaki Research Fellow The Little World Museum of Man, リトルワールド, 研究員
WATANABE Kouzou Associate Professor Fac. of Musicology, Kunitachi College of Music, 音薬学部, 助教授 (70159242)
EGUCHI Kazuhisa Associate Professor The 3rd Research Department, National Museum of Ethnology, 第3研究部, 助教授 (90045261)
HATA Nobuyuki Associate Professor The 3rd Research Department, National Museum of Ethnology, 第3研究部, 助教授 (90044742)
This research was conducted for three years from 1989 to 1991 on the subject of "Comparative Study of Political Systems and Modernization in East and West Africa", mainly in Kenya, Tanzania, Zaire, Cameroon, Ghana and Togo. Around 1990, in the midst of our research, a movement toward democratization rapidly gained ground among African people and the demand for a multi-party system started to be realized.
In Kenya we investigated the supporting groups to the newly-formdd two major opposition parties, the FORD and the Democratic Party. The people's demand for democratization took the shape of anti-governmental movement against the present president who comes from a minority group, Kalenjin. The organization of new political parties caused confrontation and antagonism among tribes.
In Tanzania, on the contrary, the decline of the traditional elder meeting and the extinction of community rituals were recorded. In a village of the Iraqw, where we investigated, after forcible Ujamaa developmen
t, administrative organizations have strengthened the ties with CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi), and thus function of the elder meeting has reduced only to solve family troubles. Among the Nyakyusa who once had chiefdom, however, CCM's influences are not so strong as other groups and the elder meeting still hold authority and have a preponderant voice in redistribution of land and others.
We investigated Kingdom of Kuba in Kasai, Zaire in 1990. The present dynasty is the 22nd king counted from the first one in the early 17th century, and he still possesses traditional authority and rules the region effectively.
In Cameroon, we recorded "Mbooku", poems of resistance composed in Fulbe kingdoms in northern region from late 19th century to early 20th century. "Mbooku" is a valuable material, because the heart of the Fulbe which had never been revealed in the presence of the European is expressed in its metaphorical form. In the northwest provinces, we conducted investigation on the traditional monarchism and value of modern civilization in Mankon Kingdom. Focusing on traditional rituals passed down from king to king as well as process of social and cultural changes toward modernization, we observed that those two factors exist in harmony. These actual circumstances were recorded ethnographically.
We investigated succession system of the throne in Kumasi, capital of Asante Kingdom, central Ghana, based on local historical materials, and revealed the history of conflict concerning the throne of Asante Kingdom. The dynasty repeated unification and split. We discussed succession of the throne, concentrating on "principle of blood" with Queen mother as the core, and thus developed a new aspect of the research.
In Togo we investigated formation and corruption of chiefdom of the Akeb in the central mountainous area, and proved that traditional political organizations in that area fought against slave-hunting by coastal kingdoms. Less