KOMOTO Masayuki FACULTY OF LETTERS.ARCHAEOLOGY,PROFESSOR, 文学部, 教授 (70072717)
YAMAMOTO Teruo FACULTY OF ENGINEERING,HISTORY OF ARCHAETECTURE,KYUSHU UNIVERSITY,, ASSISTANT, 工学部, 助手 (10038002)
NAKAHASHI Takahiro GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL STUDIES,ANATOMY,KYUSHU UNIVERSITY,ASSOCIA, 大学院・比較社会文化研究科, 助教授 (20108723)
TANAKA Yoshiyuki GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL STUDIES,ARCHAEOLOGY,KYUSHU UNIVERSITY,PRO, 大学院・比較社会文化研究科, 教授 (50128047)
MIYAMOTO Kazuo FACULTY OF LETTERS.ARCHAEOLOGY,KYUSHU UNIVERSITY,ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, 文学部, 助教授 (60174207)
Firstly, in the fiscal year of 1994, we held regular megalithic dolmen research meetings and undertook the compilation and analysis of data from megalithic dolmens of the various East Asian regions. In the case of Japan, in addition to compiling analysis results of dolmens in Nagasaki and Kumamoto Prefectures (**・***), we also set about preparing a table of the locations of Japanese megalithic dolmens. In the case of the Korean Peninsula (****), we classified and then did chronological studies of dolmens throughout the entire peninsula. In addition to attempting classification and chronological studies of dolmens in the northeastern provinces of Liaoning (***) and Jilin (***), which comprise the main distribution area in mainland China we also examined the present condition of dolmens in Zhejiang Province (***) in the lower Changjiang River (******) basin.
Secondly, we carried out an excavation survey of the Amakubo (*****) megalithic dolmen group located in Amakubo, Saikai-cho, Nishiso
nogi-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture (*************). Firstly, when we carried out a distribution survey of the entire periphery, we found that the dolmens formed two major groups, which for convenience sake we named the east and west group. In the so-called east group we found three of what are thought to be dolmet capstones dotted in the center of the burial ground. In addition to a topographical survey of the area, the locations of the dolmens were clarified and 10 : 1 plans of 3 dolmens were drawn up. A group of burials comprising box-shaped stone coffin burials and megalithic dolmens was recognized in the west group. Dolmens were found in two locations within that group, 2 to the north and 1 to the south. The single dolmen to the south had already been moved from its original position, but the 2 northern dolmens were found to be existing in approximately their original positions. For that reason, a survey of the latter 2 was launched beginning with a topographical survey of the environs. When the capstones were subsequently removed to excavated the lower sections, we discovered the burial facilities of these diomens consisted of small stone coffins. To investigate for the presence or absence of archaeological features and their contents, a trench was dug on the south side of the dolmen.
In 1995 also, as a continuation from the previous fiscal year, regular dolmen research meetings were held, megalithic dolmens in the East Asian regions, such as mainland China, the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese archipelago, were analyzed and compiled, and and a comprehensive comparative investigation of a mumber of problems, such as their nutual similarities and differences, was undertaken.
We then excavated the Morita megalithic dolmen group (Morita Shisekibogun) located in Uki, Karatsu City, Saga Prefecture (Saga-ken Karatsu-shi Uki). On this occasion, a topographical survey was done which allowed us to to grasp the distribution and geographical conditions of the group. As a result, we found that although the capstones had been slightly moved and damaged due to farmland development, we were able to reconfirm that the existing dolmens do in fact form a single group, making this a rare example. Measurements were also made of the individual capstones. The burial facilities of two of these capstones were then investigated. Although the capstones had been slightly moved, we were able to verify part of the dolmen and the burial facilities. In contrast to the Amakubo site (Amakubo Iseki) in Nagasaki Prefecture (Nagasaki-ken) which we excavated during the last fiscal year where we found that the lower structure of the dolmen consisted of a small box-shaped stone coffin, we found a small-scale earthen pit at this site. In addition, we also detected a small coffin consisting of a pottery pot and jar belonging to the period with notched ridge ware, which were fitted together mouth to mouth. The knowledge gained from these two sites will be helpful when considering regional differences in the lower structure of dolmens. Considering the fact that the Morita dolmen group (Morita Shisekibogun) is adjacent to the western mound of the site of Ukikunden (Ukikunden Iseki) from the beginning of the Yayoi period, this could be considered that site's burial ground. As seen from the above, we were able to obtain information important to the understanding of the aspects of the burial systems in Northern Kyushu at the beginning of the Yayoi period as a result of this investigation.
Lastly, in the fiscal year of 1996, which was the final year of our 3 year research plan, we worked with the principal objective of making a comprehensive compilation of the investigation results from the previous two years. For this reason, we reanalyzed the enormous amount of data collected in addition to writing a report of our research results. During this time, we held the 15th and final megalithic dolmen research meeting. On that occasion we supplemented research concerning dolmens on the Lioadong Peninsula (Riyaoton hantou) in China, the southwestern coast of Korea and Jeju Island (Saisyutou), and grasped the present conditions of research into small ritual offering jars which are important artefacts uncarthed from Japanese megalithic dolmens. Less