2000 Fiscal Year Final Research Report Summary
Disaster and Crime (Crime Victimization and Fear of Crime after the Hanshin Great Earthquake)
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B).
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants |
|Research Institution||Konan University |
SAITO Toyoji Konan Univ., Law Dpt., professor, 法学部, 教授 (00068131)
MAENO Ikuzo Kwangsei-Gakuin Univ., Law Dpt., professor, 法学部, 教授 (60079639)
NISHIMURA Haruo Kokushikan Univ., Law Dpt., professor, 法学部, 教授 (60228228)
NISHIDA Eiichi Konan Univ., Law Dpt., professor, 法学部, 教授 (50279668)
DOI Masakazu Kyusyu Univ., Law Dpt., professor, 法学部, 教授 (30188841)
ADACHI Masakatsu Kwangto-Gakuin Univ., Law Dpt., professor, 法学部, 教授 (70022267)
|Project Period (FY)
1998 – 2000
|Keywords||crime / Hanshin Great Earthquake / crime prevention / neighborhood watch / neighborhood association / anomie / Kanto Great Earthquake / routine activity|
Although crime seems to increase after great earthquakes due to ineffectiveness of police and social disorganization under emergencies, this is not accurate. Natural disaster usually decreases crime for strengthened solidarity among citizens, especially disaster victims. In some cases, natural disaster results in increase of crime, where social disorganization preexists and the disaster becomes a trigger of explosive increase of offences. After the Kanto Great Earthquake mass murder of Korean residents took place. By then, many Koreans moved to Japan for poverty caused under Japanese rules of Korean Peninsula. Mass movement for independent and liberation in 1919 was severely suppressed by colonial forces and prejudice against Koreans became stronger. The martial law after the earthquake was promulgated, which was prepared by two generals and the head of Tokyo Metropolitan Police who had severely suppressed the independent movement in Korea.
After the Hanshin Great Earthquake, social ord
er was considerably maintained and serious problems of crime did not occurred. This proved the aforementioned general tendency. Food was supplied beyond ethnic borders and people supported each other. However strengthened solidarity among victims in communities might have prevented from flowing potential offenders' flowing, it also unfairly excluded "outsiders", especially Asian foreign residents in the communities. Vietnamese, excluded by Japanese, had to move to a park and start collective life in refugee camp. Some volunteers also started FM station to give accurate information to the minorities.
We sent questionnaires to each head of neighborhood associations in Higashinada, Chuo, Nagata in Kobe and Nishinomiya City, inquiring crime prevention activities after the earthquake. Following are the fact-findings : Their activities were spontaneous and independent of police and local government. Most were engaged in night patrol, then inspection of dangerous spots, day patrol, etc. They believed such activities were efficient to prevent crime and reduce fear of victimization of crime. Less
Research Products (4 results)