OSAWA Yoshiaki University of Tsukuba, Institute of Policy and Planning Sciences, Professor, 社会工学系, 教授 (50183760)
KATO Yoshitake Tokyo University of Agriculture, Faculty of International agriculture and food studies, Professor, 国際食料情報学部, 教授 (20349814)
SUZUKI Tsutomu University of Tsukuba, Institute of Policy and Planning Sciences, Associate Professor, 社会工学系, 助教授 (00282327)
Most Japanese cities have a history of applying modern urban planning concepts which originated in Europe and North America. Some cities did succeed in applying the concepts, but in many cases in Japan the results were generally perceived to be chaotic landscapes. Urban fringe landscapes with segmented farmlands and woods, which were seen to result from the incomplete application of these concepts, have been regarded as a symbol of disordered Japanese urban fringe areas. However, farmlands and woods in urban fringe areas function in maintaining the ecological integrity of the areas. This study identified ecological functions of such green open spaces in urban fringe areas including microclimate control, scenic conservation, and wildlife conservation. The microclimate control function is the effect of farmlands and woods in reducing the heat of surrounding residential areas during hot days in mid-summer. Farmlands also improve the landscape of densely inhabited urban areas by providing
feelings of openness. Woods, know as satoyama, function as habitats for wildlife species including gray-faced buzzard. This study also identified that segmented patches of farmlands in residential areas are not only found in modern urban fringe areas, but can already be found in feudal Japanese cities as Edo, former Tokyo.
Golf courses and artificially planted greens in new towns are also essential green open spaces found in urban fringe areas. This study identified ecological functions of golf courses including wildlife conservation and biomass energy resource, and also discussed the scenic values of linear green corridors in new towns. The study also discussed green open spaces in urban fringe areas of Asian and European countries by having Metro Manila, the Philippines, as an Asian case study, while London, UK, as that in Europe.
All of the studies in this project suggest that landscape planning in Japanese urban fringe areas should not exclude farmlands, woods and golf courses, but should include them by applying a concept which pays full attention to their ecological functions. Less