YAMAGUCHI Yoshikazu Hokkaido University of Education, Faculty of Education, Associate Professor, 教育学部・函館校, 助教授 (30271018)
YAMAZAKI Shokichi Hokkaido University of Education, Faculty of Education, Professor, 教育学部・函館校, 教授 (80107242)
NAKAMURA Koji Hokkaido University of Education, Faculty of Education, Professor, 教育学部・函館校, 教授 (40007563)
UMEZAWA Minoru Naruto University of Education, Research Center for School Education, 学校教育実践センター, 教授 (60314887)
We found a clue to our investigations from good results that many pathbreaking researchers have achieved in their teaching practices and studies, as the proverb says, "By exploring the old, one becomes able to understand the new." In order to make use of those results in creating a new educational practice, we carried out the following investigations :
1.We analyzed and reviewed the family tree of teaching researches that some experienced teachers had made with the education-technological means in their teaching practices and which had started as free education movement in the Taisho era.
2.Investigating and analyzing the teachers' and student teachers' characteristics about the clues to their designing for teaching, we extracted 13 factors. After considering correspondence between the extracted factors and the scripts of instructional designs and preparatory activities, we arranged and classified teachers' thoughts and designing functions such as 'interpretation and understanding of teaching materials,' 'presentation of teaching materials,' 'structure of teaching process,' etc. Furthermore, we analyzed and examined the changes of the clues to teachers' designing for teaching along with their experience and skillfulness.
3.In order to make plans of new practices, we developed the ways to design teaching plans by getting and using the information about the relation between learners and teaching materials from preceding practices and studies. We designed and used figures to express visually the structure of teaching process,' which shows the structure of development process, and 'changing process and its structure of teaching strategies and intentions,' which reflects teachers' minds, based on the records of preceding practices. As a result of using those figures, we found they were very effective.
4.We also examined a so-called "(Period for) Integrated Study" and the possibility of carrying it out.