2006 Fiscal Year Final Research Report Summary
A Historical Study of Juvenile Vagrants and War Orphans in Post-War Japan
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants |
|Research Institution||Hokkaido University |
HEMMI Masaaki Hokkaido Univ., Grad. School of Education, Prof., 大学院教育学研究科, 教授 (20002321)
|Project Period (FY)
2004 – 2006
|Keywords||juvenile vagrant / war orphan / Tosuien / the Hill Which Sounds of a Bel / Pixie Hood / Kazuo Kikuta|
A Historical Study of Reform Institution "Tosuien" Established for Juvenile Vagrants and War Orphans in Shinagawa Daiba
1)The juvenile vagrants and war orphans made their living by thieving, pick pocketing and begging. Due to this, sometimes crime syndicates existed behind them.
2)In September of 1946, the Suijo Police Station of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department got the cooperation of G.H.Q. Tokyo Supply Factory and established "Tosuien", a reform institution for them, in the Fifth Shinagawa Daiba (the Fifth Shinagawa Daiba later became the First Daiba). The reason for establishing Tosuien in Shinagawa Daiba was that it was an artificial island floating in the ocean. The Suijo Police Station made the judgment that if they were sent to the reform institution on an artificial island (Shinagawa Daiba) it would be possible to isolate them from the general public and prevent them from escaping. The Suijo Police Station set up Tosuien to be a branch of the Minato-ku Takanawadai Element
ary School and imposed compulsory education on the children in Tosuien. In reality, the children often tried to escape. Among the children that ran away, some of them couldn't reach the opposite bank and drowned. In the end, Tosuien was destroyed by a typhoon in September of 1949 and as a result, Tosuien was closed.
A Study of the NHK Radio Drama Series "The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell" (script by Kazuo Kikuta, Broadcast period: July 5, 1947 to December 29, 1950, broadcasts 790 times)
1)"The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell" was written for the purpose of saving juvenile vagrants and preventing delinquency, conventional studies of "The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell" tend to depend on the impressions and memories of the same period. I read through the entire script of "The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell" (property of the NHK Museum of Broadcasting) and analyzed the constitution and contents of the broadcast play.
2)"The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell" is about the juvenile vagrants' independence. With Shuhei, who is a demobilization soldier, they confront the pick pocketing group called the Yamada Family which preys on the juvenile vagrants. Then they build "The House for Boys" while fighting against the prejudice of the general public and finally come to Hokkaido to help with the development. The juvenile vagrants and war orphans were often seen as criminals and the police often took action to control them. So that they could live happily, Kikuta found their parents or adoptive parents and also engaged them in the development of farms so that they could have an independent life.
3)"The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell" was first broadcast can be listen to on NHK radio channel one and the same program was rebroadcast on NHK channel two, and it was also made into a film, a novel, a play, and a picture-story show. In addition a record of the theme song "Pixie Hood" from "The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell" was produced. These variations came about as a result of the increasing popularity of the dramatic series "The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell". Remarkably, "Pixie Hood," the theme song of "The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell," was chosen as the march of the Japan High School Baseball Tournament. It is evident that the broadcast play of "The Hill Which Sounds of a Bell" spread over a wide area and won a favorable reception with the listeners. Less