|Budget Amount *help
¥105,690,000 (Direct Cost: ¥81,300,000、Indirect Cost: ¥24,390,000)
Fiscal Year 2012: ¥19,110,000 (Direct Cost: ¥14,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥4,410,000)
Fiscal Year 2011: ¥19,110,000 (Direct Cost: ¥14,700,000、Indirect Cost: ¥4,410,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥22,100,000 (Direct Cost: ¥17,000,000、Indirect Cost: ¥5,100,000)
Fiscal Year 2009: ¥26,520,000 (Direct Cost: ¥20,400,000、Indirect Cost: ¥6,120,000)
Fiscal Year 2008: ¥18,850,000 (Direct Cost: ¥14,500,000、Indirect Cost: ¥4,350,000)
8-Nitro-cGMP is a novel mediator of active oxygen and nitric oxide. In this program, isotopically labeled 8- nitro-cGMP was synthesized to examine its metabolic fate in cells. It was reduced to 8-amino-cGMP first, and then converted to intact cGMP in cells. The latter transformation from 8-amino-cGMP required LPS-treatment of cells. We also prepared fluorescent nitroguanosine probes to obtain insight into the intracellular localization of 8-nitro-cGMP. The lysosomal localization of the fluorescent probes prompted us to examine the roles of 8-nitro-cGMP in autophagy induction. 8-Nitro-cGMP accelerated the autophagic clearance of intracellular group A Streptococcus (GAS). Interestingly, the surface of intracellular GAS was modified by S-guanylation, and the level of the modification showed a robust relationship with GAS ubiquitination suggesting that S-guanylation. These results may suggest that 8-nitro-cGMP works as a tag for selective transport of bacteria to autophagosomes.