|Budget Amount *help
¥67,730,000 (Direct Cost : ¥52,100,000、Indirect Cost : ¥15,630,000)
Fiscal Year 2012 : ¥17,940,000 (Direct Cost : ¥13,800,000、Indirect Cost : ¥4,140,000)
Fiscal Year 2011 : ¥17,940,000 (Direct Cost : ¥13,800,000、Indirect Cost : ¥4,140,000)
Fiscal Year 2010 : ¥17,940,000 (Direct Cost : ¥13,800,000、Indirect Cost : ¥4,140,000)
Fiscal Year 2009 : ¥9,880,000 (Direct Cost : ¥7,600,000、Indirect Cost : ¥2,280,000)
Fiscal Year 2008 : ¥4,030,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,100,000、Indirect Cost : ¥930,000)
To understand the effects of aerosol on the growth and physiological parameters in trees of forests growing in the East Asia including Japan, we established the precise methods to visualize the adsorption of aerosol on the outer surface of leaves and needles and its absorption into the interior of leaves and needles at nano-level. We observed the different distribution or localization of black carbon (BC) particles depending on surface structure of leaves and needles. The ammonium sulfate (AS) particles were distributed on the entire surface of leaves and needles including regions of dense tube-like waxes. This pattern of distribution was different from that of black carbon particles. Therefore, physiological response of leaves and needles to fine particles at submicron range might be different between BC and AS. After long-term exposure of two growing periods, we observed irregular AS particles in old leaves. The long-term exposure might induce changes in the size and shape of deposited AS particles by environmental changes such as temperature and humidity.