|Budget Amount *help
¥116,220,000 (Direct Cost: ¥89,400,000、Indirect Cost: ¥26,820,000)
Fiscal Year 2014: ¥23,140,000 (Direct Cost: ¥17,800,000、Indirect Cost: ¥5,340,000)
Fiscal Year 2013: ¥24,180,000 (Direct Cost: ¥18,600,000、Indirect Cost: ¥5,580,000)
Fiscal Year 2012: ¥27,300,000 (Direct Cost: ¥21,000,000、Indirect Cost: ¥6,300,000)
Fiscal Year 2011: ¥24,960,000 (Direct Cost: ¥19,200,000、Indirect Cost: ¥5,760,000)
Fiscal Year 2010: ¥16,640,000 (Direct Cost: ¥12,800,000、Indirect Cost: ¥3,840,000)
|Outline of Final Research Achievements
This project resulted in construction of a global-scale database (NeanderDB), which documents more than 3200 Middle and Upper Paleolithic excavated sites across Africa and Eurasia dated to between 200 and 20 kya. A critical evaluation of the spatio-temporal contexts of the compiled data revealed regionally varied replacement and assimilation processes of the two populations, suggesting their possible co-existence and cultural interaction.
The study also investigated potential differences in learning behaviors of the two populations in an effort to test the “learning hypothesis”. The results show that it is too simplistic to postulate innate cognitive differences as the single force accounting for replacement of the Neanderthals. The “learning hypothesis” proposed in 2009 now needs to be updated, taking into consideration non-innate social issues, including the population size and social organization, as important factors affecting learning behavior in the two population groups.