Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||University of Tokyo|
KASHIWAZAKI Hiroshi Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 医学部(医), 講師 (60004735)
TAKASAKA Kouichi School of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, 保健学部, 教授 (00146557)
MOJI Kazuhiko Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 医学部, 助教授 (80166321)
ORIAS Rivera ボリビア国家警察病院, 医師
VARGASーPACHE ハ゜チエコ ボリビア高地生物学研究所, 所長
YOSHINAGA Jun Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute for Environmental Stuide, 研究員 (70222396)
WATANABE Chiho Tohoku University School of Medicine, 医学部, 助手 (70220902)
SASAKI Akihiko Division of Environmental Physiology and Hygiene, National Institute of Public H, 生理衛生学部・体力生理室, 室長 (70150175)
KOCHI Arata Tuberculosis Unit, World Health Organization, 結核対策課, 課長
TAKEMOTO Tai-ichiro Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 医学部, 教授 (60010005)
ORIAS Jose Hospital Virgen de Copacabana, Policia Nacional de Bolivia
VARGAS Enrique Facultad de Medicina, Instituto Boliviano de Biologia de Altura
ORIAS Jose ボリビア社会保険病院, 医師
VARGAS Enriq ボリビア高地生物学研究所, 所長
|Project Period (FY)
1989 – 1991
Completed(Fiscal Year 1991)
|Budget Amount *help
¥28,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥28,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥10,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥10,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1989 : ¥8,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥8,300,000)
|Keywords||Physical Growth at High Altitude / Blood Pressure and Salt Intake / Selenium and GSH-Px / Doubly-Labeled-Water Method / Nutritional Ecology / Cassava and Cyanide / Recognition Threshold for Taste / Aymara and Moseten / 24時間エネルギ-消費量 / 酸素・水素同位体による二重標識水 / マス・スペクトロメ-タ- / キャッサバ / シアン配糖体 / 食物摂取調査 / 味覚試験 / 生活活動様式 / 生存維持機構 / 環境資源利用システム / 生理学的適応機序 / エネルギ-消費量 / 栄養学的適応機序 / 基礎代謝 / 味覚|
The major findings from this research project are summarized as follows :
1. In comparison with those of published data for the other Andean rural and urban populations (Aymara, Quechua and Mestizo at high altitudes), our subjects (Aymara children) had smaller chest dimensions (depth and width) than those of Quechua children, suggesting different process of chest growth in Aymara and Quechua populations.
2. Data on food consumption and daily energy expenditure (24-hour heart rate method) in a typical rural Aymara community of the high Andes showed that calcium and vitamin A intakes were far below the Bolivian recommended dietary allowances. Wide variations in both energy intake and expenditure throughout all age groups were observed.
3. Blood pressure in populations at low and high altitudes indicated no significant differences with changes in altitude. In high-altitude subjects, mean amounts of urinary excretion of both sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were more than twice as high as those
in low-altitude subjects ; the mean daily urinary Na excretion was about 260 mmole/day (15 g of NaCl) at high altitudes. Multiple regression analysis indicated that age, arm circumference, and altitude (or Hb concentration) were the major determinants of blood pressure. The hypoxic environment and high levels of salt and K consumption may have negated altitude's effects on blood pressure.
4. Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities (U/ml-blood) were significantly higher in highlanders than in lowlanders. while the difference was reversed if the activities were expressed in U/g-Hb. Even though Hb concentrations were significantly higher in highlanders, the increase in activities of GSH-Px in this population appeared not to be compatible in magnitude with the increase in Hb concentration.
5. Urine samples from 23 high altitude subjects, who were orally administered doubly-labeled water (DLW) with stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium, were analyzed with ratio mass spectrometer. Energy expenditure estimated by this method showed that their activity levels were higher (1.3-2 times of basal metabolic rate) than would be expected from literature on the Peruvian high Andes, suggesting a need for reconsidering a hypothesis of age-related energy-saving behavior in resource limiting high Andes.
6. Natives to the lowland (mosetenes) appeared to be more sensitive to identify cassava varieties by taste than migrants (Aymara, Quechua and Chipaya). In a community of migrants, a variety of bitter cassava was used and the concentration of cyanide was as high as 100 times the sweet cassava used among the native Mosetenes. Traditional technology to avoid toxic substances from cyanidecontaining cassava, and its health effects on natives and migrants warrant further study. Less