大久保 孝治 早稲田大学, 文学部, 助手 (00194100)
ISHIHARA Kunio Tokyo Metropolitan University Professor, 人文学部, 助教授 (00106212)
FUJIMI Sumiko Taisho University Professor, 文学部, 教授 (60173457)
MOCHIZUKI Takashi Taisho University Professor, 文学部, 教授 (20054645)
AOI Kazuo Ryutsu Keizai University Professor, 社会学部, 教授 (70011260)
IKEOKA Yoshitaka Waseda University Associate Professor, 人間科学部, 助教授 (90151274)
|Budget Amount *help
¥5,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1989 : ¥3,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,900,000)
This project carried out the two waves of field surveys in Fukushima city in 1989 and 1990. The sample of first wave survey numbered 879 male and female, who were born between 1914 and 1958, their ages expnanded between 74 and 30 years old. They were sampled randomly from residents' registers. They were asked for the items on their redidential, educational, occupational, familial career development, household, health, socioeconomic status history, as well as their attitudes and assessment for their lives from their birth up to the point of observation, basically using the structured questionaires. The second wave of field survey conducted in 1990 collected their life history data on subjective perceptions of individuals' life course were conducted to a part of the sample who had participated in the former year's research (120 male and female). In 1991, a research report "People Who Lived the Drastic Era of Showa : A Life Course Comparion among Five Successive Cohorts" came out.
This project studied people's role gain and lost, role timing and sequencing, and role transitions in each particular phase (for exapmple, In the youth, early adulthood, adulthood, and later years after retirement) over the life span.
Since much of the variability in life course patterns is socially structured, this project examined how people's lives depend on the particular roles they play, the situations they encounter, the others who become significant to them, and how these others in turn act, think, and feel.
This research found out a body of findings about people's formation of their life course in a particular social and historical situation they encountered. A few of findings on inter-cohort difference and intra-cohort differentiation will be described.
1. Great prevalence of the normatively sequencing pattern in transition from youth to early adulthood.
As the cohort gets younger, there is an increasing tendency toward the normative life pattern (ordered sequence of transitional events --school completion of f=full-time job participation-getting married).
2. Emergence of women's normative pattern and accelerating Prvalence
Great change between the female cohorts is observed in the fact that in the young cohorts the rate of the normative transition pattern registered a sharp increase, rapidly approximation to the male pattern. 3. Counter-transition is significant in both early and later life transitions in particular.
As individuals move because of aging from one role to another, their significant other undergo counterpart transitions, for example, desease or death of one's spouse, or a family crisis, such as parent's divorce or death in one's childhood, requires simultaneous transitions by all family members, with complex economic and social as well as psychological consequences foe the lives of the individuals. Less