|Budget Amount *help
¥1,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 1989 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
|Keywords||Prussian educational-reform, / Pestalozzi's method of teaching, / Intuitive instruction, / Normal-institution, / Seminar-system, / Universal education, / Autonomy of education, / 教育のオ-トノミ- / プロイセン改革 / メト-デ / 基礎教授 / 人間教育 / 国民教育 / ノ-マン・インスティテュ-ト|
1. As basic works of this research, we have divided the introducing process of the Pestalozzi's Method in Prussia into two periods before and after 1807, and some subordinate periods.
2. (1) Before the Prussian reform, the Pestalozzi's Method was accepted, unless it was not opposed to later absolutism and social vocational-standing order, (2) during the reform-period it was estimated from the standpoint of anti-feudalism and accepted as the means to develop the human abilities, to educate humanity and the nation.
3. Regarding the estimate of the Pestalozzi's method during the reform period, there were various viewpoints as follows, (1) regard it as the means of resuscitation of mankind and nation, especially of German (J. G. Fichte), (2) the way of formation of human morality, nationalism and vocational training (Frhr. vom Stein), (3) the way of formation of virture and faith (L. Nicolovius), (4) the way of cultivation of independent human abilities (W. v. Humboldt, J. W. Suvern), and (5
) the viewpoint of attaching importance to autonomy of education (Humboldt).
4. It was in Suvern's "Promemoria"dated Aug. 31, 1808, that the Pestalozzi's method was estimated and accepted in the reform of the whole educational system for the first time, and it was estimated as the principle, which should serve building up the unified and nationalized universal system of public education.
5. Policies to introduce of the Pestalozzi's method into Prussia were developed as sending of students to Pestalozzi in Iferten, and invitation of C. A. Zeller and building up the normal-institution in every province. (1) The representation dated Mar. 5 and the Imperial ordinance Mar. 15, 1809, which decided the above mentioned policies, meant, fundmentally, the beginning of formation of the elemntary school teacher-education system, and (2) proposed three principles of teacher-education (completion of universal elementary-education, planned-training and on-the-job training). (3) The policy conversion from normal-institution to seminar-system is considered as the development of these three principles. Less