A Study of Schools in Tokugawa Japan-in Connection with Learning Activities
Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||Kyoto University|
UMIHARA Toru Kyoto University College of Liberal Arts Professor, 教養部, 教授 (00026824)
|Project Period (FY)
1989 – 1990
Completed(Fiscal Year 1990)
|Budget Amount *help
¥1,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 1989 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
|Keywords||Compulsory education / Open-door / Literacy / Self-learning / Team-teaching / Graded-system / Examination / Merit-system / 読、書、算 / 識字率 / 個別教授 / 集団学習 / 秘事口伝 / マン・ツウ・マン方式 / 生徒中心主義 / 競争主義 / 巡回講筵 / 社会教化 / 知足安分 / 口授形式 / 講釈 / 分限道徳|
The result can be summarized as follows :
1. Shogunate, and fief schools aimed to train the samurai-political leaders.
2. These schools were mainly interested in the education for the higher samurai ranks, and compulsory education was provided for them.
3. Toward the end of the period, commoners were permitted to attend the samurai schools, but the so called "open-door" was limited in number, time, and curriculum, etc.
4. Goko, Kyoyusyo (local school), and shingakusya (religious school) which were established by feudal lords placed emphasis in not intellectual but moral training, or the education suitable to rulers.
5. At Meiji era, various educational institutions numbered in tens of thousands, and thes helped to promote literacy of commoners (one-third of them were literate).
6. The curriculum began with not reading but writing, syuji (penmanship) was the initial stage of every study.
7. Following syuji instruction, pupils began to read the Confucian classics by sodoku by sodoku method. Scope and sequence reflected the doctorine of scholars, and provided seperate curricula for the ranks.
8. Although at large schools group lesson became popular rather than private lesson, various self-learning and team-teaching methods were devised, which we can find in modern schools.
9. Most schools adopted the graded system for curricula to encourage pupils and to compete with another for a position.
10. Some teachers paid attention to ill effects caused by examination, but nobody argued on the abolition of it, for the criteria for advancement based on not ranks but merits.
Research Products (8results)