Grant-in-Aid for Overseas Scientific Survey.
|Research Institution||University of Tsukuba|
SATO Shun Institute of History & Anthropology. Tsukuba University, 歴史人類学系, 助教授 (00114497)
BEYENE Tadde アヂスアベバ大学, エティオピア研究所, 助教授(所長)
WERE Gideon ナイロビ大学, アフリカ研究所, 教授(所長)
篠原 徹 国立歴史民俗博物館, 民俗部門, 助教授 (80068915)
ゲタッチョ カサ アデイスアババ大学, エチオピア研究所, 専任研究員
重田 真義 京都大学, アフリカ地域研究センター, 助手 (80215962)
NYAMONG ISAA ナイロビ大学, アフリカ研究所, 専任研究員
太田 至 京都大学, アフリカ地域研究センター, 助教授 (60191938)
北村 光二 弘前大学, 人文学部, 教授 (20161490)
原子 令三 明治大学, 経営学部, 教授 (30025431)
OHTA Itaru Center for African Area Studies. Kyoto University
NYAMONG Isaaq Institute of African Studies. Nairobi University
HARAKO Reizo Department of Management. Meiji University
KITAMURA Koji Department of Humanities. Hirosaki University
|Project Fiscal Year
1990 – 1992
Completed(Fiscal Year 1992)
|Budget Amount *help
¥30,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥30,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥10,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥10,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥10,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,000,000)
|Keywords||Commercial Pastoralism / Somaroid Peoples / Subsitance Pastoralism / Network of Local Commercialism / Camel Caravan / Islam / Livestock Transactions / History of Local Commercialism / 商業牧畜 / ソマロイド系諸民族 / 生業牧畜 / 地域商業網 / ラクダのキャラバン / 家畜の取引 / 地域商業史 / イスラム教 / 仲介商業網 / 水場管理組織 / オロモ系諸民族 / ソマリ系諸民族 / 民族間関係 / 水場管理組識 / 井戸町 / 地域経済史|
This research project was carried out in the Garriland and its surrounding area which is situated in the border area between Echiopia. Somalia and Kenya. The livestock transactions and the activity of medium merchants are analized from the view-point of socio-history and ecology. and then the complex structure which is composed of subsistance pastoralism and transit commercialism will be clarified.
1. the socio-historical background of the border area :
In this area Borana culture which is characterized by Gada-system. Oromo-Boran language and cattle herding. Amharic culture characterized by Christianity. Amharic language and fortress post. and Somali culture characterized by Islamism. Somali language and camel herding are interconnected in an intricate way. Especially. Somaroid peoples( Rendille. Garri. Gabra. Gura. Sakuye. Garromaro. and Ajuran) have been influenced by these three cultures. and have been compelled to split into several ethnic groups or to reorganize them.
2. the network
of local commercialism :
The network of local commercialism is composed of the trade out of the area. that within the area and the subsistance pastoralism. The northward trade which is connected with Addis Ababa. the southward trade connected with Nairobi and the eastward trade connected with Indian ocean are relayed on the border area. The trade out of the area is monopolized by the Somali and Garri merchants. They separate their families into important towns to make lodgements for commercial network. Also. they pursuit for the family business through matrimonial alliance between the trade. The individuality of their family groups and the commercial strategy are preferred to the traditional descent value. The Islamite identity and solidarity makes such strategy feasible.
The rural merchants take the trade within the area upon themselves. They separate their families between rural town and mobile settlement so that they can both manage shop and rear livestock. They regard the two ways of life interconnected and compound them to make up the commercial pastoralism.
3. the commercial pastoralism :
The commercial pastoralism ( the Somali and Garri peoples ) is distinct from the subsistence pastoralism ( the Turkana. Samburu. Gabra and Rendille peoples ). The latter regard the herding way of life as the important element of their identity and live on the rangeland. They tend to sell stock in time of depression rather than boom. Under favourable conditions. they engage in target-sales. where the object is to acquire immediate cash sum for specific purpose. Their stock are shared property in order to promote their solidarity.
The former share lslamite value and compound the herding way of life with commercialism. The Garri example commecial pastoralism. They make no more exhaustive pursuit for commercial profit than the specialized town merchants. They are not more bound by territoriality and descent system than the subsistance herders. However. such a way of life should be regarded as peculiar life-style rather than as the eclectic life-style. Less