A Study of Human Standing Ability With Racial Comparison
Grant-in-Aid for Overseas Scientific Survey.
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||The University of the Air|
HIRASAWA Yaichiro Professor, Faculty of Liberal Arts, The University of the Air, 教養学部, 教授 (50022075)
USUI Nagao Associate Professor, Faculty of Liberal Arts, The University of the Air, 教養学部, 助教授 (40185012)
WATANABE Isao Professor, Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, 教育学部, 教授 (30021885)
|Project Period (FY)
Completed(Fiscal Year 1990)
|Keywords||Contact surface of foot sole / Growth and development / Racial difference|
I. Object : For a human being standing still on both feet is the key posture to start any physical movements and what makes this posture maintain stably is named human standing ability.
The object of the study is to define how social and geographical factors affect on standing ability of human of a specific race. In compliance with the purpose measurements are done in Czechoslovakia, subjecting males and females of 255 in order to obtain data to be required for a quantitative analyzing and further observation in the study.
II. Method : For analyzing observation contact surface of foot sole, right and left each, of a subject is measured. Measurements are done on the photogragh of foot sole traced to full size, which to originally taken by camera/35mm attacked below the stage of pedoscope on which each subject is requied to stand to be photographed. A front full length picture of a subject is videotaped simultaneosly.
III. Subjects : Thirty-nursing home children aged 3-6 years living in Mor
avia (bothsexes). One hundred school children aged 6-11years in Praha (both sexes). Twenty-two high school students aged 17-18years in Moravia (both sexes). Fifty-six adults aged 20-67 years in Praha and Moravia (both sexes). Twenty-one professional soccer players in Praha (male only). And Mr. and Mrs. Zatopec in Praha.
IV. Results :
(1) As for Hirasawa Line, foot length ; There is increasing tendency R up to age of 18 for both sexes. After age of 17 and on, the difference between male and female is noticeable.
(2) As foot width lineX (a line crossing H. L. at right angles and dividing foot sole into middle portion and backward) ; there is a decreasing tendency at age of 4-10 for male, 8-29 for female. During age of 17-29, a decreasing tendency of female a much slighter than that of male.
(3) As for foot width lineY (a line dividing foot sole into middle portion and forward) ; There is a remarkable increasing tendency at the age of 9-17for male, 8-11 for female, which is related closely to earlier growth of female in comparison with that of male.
(4) Regarding foot angle (angle between both tangential lines, outside and inside) ; it is somewhat narrow as a whole, which differs distinctively from that of Japanese.
(5) There is little difference between right and left foot as to Hirasawa Line and foot width lineX respectively. Right foot, in general, is longer as to foot width line Y.
(6) From the data obtained pre-exercise and post-exercise respectly, little difference is observed between them.
(7) As to often the case a marathon runner of the first rank, Mr. Zatopec's feet have a peculiar type of toes which is common to A. Abebe, F. Shorter and J. Smith. Mrs. Data of Zatopec's foot implie that her actual is study one from lasting training as a javelin thrower.
V. Conclusions ;
(1) Arch of foot sole takes up a greater part of a whole foot sole, consequently making contact surface of this portion extremely small.
(2) Shape of foot sole is long and thin with a narrow foot angle.
(3) In their youth, they get their shape of foot soles formed to the extent of those of adults. Less
Research Output (2results)