マーチン コルカット プリンストン大学, 東洋学部, 教授
ジャンピエール ベルトン フランス学術研究所, 講師
ハルトムート ロッタムン フランス国立高等研究院, 教授
根本 誠二 明治大学, 文学部, 講師
宇佐美 正利 明治大学, 文学部, 講師
孝本 貢 明治大学, 商学部, 教授 (60101333)
大濱 徹也 筑波大学, 歴史人類学系, 教授 (40065199)
COLLCUTT Martin Professor, Asian Studies Department of Princeton University
BERTHON Jean-Pierre Lecturer, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique.
ROTERMUND Hartmunt O Professor, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.
USAMI Masatoshi Lecturer, Literature Department of Meiji University
NEMOTO Seiji Lecturer, Literature Department of Meiji University
OHAMA Tetsuya Professor, History and Anthropology Department of Tsukuba University
KOMOTO Mitsugu Professor, Business Department of Meiji University
|Budget Amount *help
¥3,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,800,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥3,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,800,000)
The study of European religious history is a field limited not only to Westerners. In this investigation, Japanese researchers called upon their own experiences with religious study in Japan in order to do comparative research together with western scholars in July (16-30) of 1990. This research took place at holy pilgrimage sites in the southern part of France, including Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral, La Chaise Dieu Church, Albi Cathedral, and Lourdes Cave. In addition, the group traveled over the Pyrennes into Spain and eventually into Santiago de Compostela in order to visit churches believed connected to the legendary pilgrimage of St. Jacob. Targeted were holy "pilgrimage churches". At these churches the group witnessed gratuitous gifts from believers including oil paintings of St. Jacob and carved frames from those thankful for healing.
The researchers involved could not help but compare the presence of crosses and statues of Mary at town borders with travelers' guardian deities foun
d in Japan. The group saw the holy waters of the Lourdes Cave ; the spot believed revealed to Bernadette Soubirous by the Virgin Mary. Witnessed firsthand was the reality of this seemingly inexplicable healing power. Observations revealed that the pilgrims believe the water to be possessed with spiritual power in much the same way as holy water offered to Buddhist deities is believed to be, even though most explain the phenomenon of healing through holy water not as religious miracle, but rather as the result of powerful religious belief.
In many respects, Lourdes Cave reminds Japanese religious scholars of Asakusa Temple, the 13th holy site of the 33 site Bando pilgrimage, and Kiyomizu Temple, the 25th holy site of the 33 site Saigoku pilgrimage. The pilgrimage to Lourdes and to the sites believed visited by St. Jacob are remarkably similar to Japanese pilgrimages in Saigoku, Bando, and Shikoku and to trips made to head temples by religious pilgrims. In addition, the legend of St. Jacob bears resemblance to oral traditions passed down concerning the holy pilgrimages of the monk Kobodaishi Kukai in Shikoku and the monk Gyoki in Bando. Through our research it was discovered that many basic religious concepts held by people are the same despite obvious differences between Christianity and Buddhism.
The Europeans and Americans involved in this research are themselves scholars of Japanese religious history. The Japanese participants and Western participants of course had different approaches but the goal was the same ; to go beyond simply comparing similarities and differences between religious rites and memorial services in Christianity and Buddhism and instead attempt to discover universals in the acceptance of religion by believers. In order to develop upon the results of this research, we'd like to do further study in Germany, England, and the U. S. again through the combined efforts of Japanese, European, and North American scholars of Japanese religious history. Less