|Budget Amount *help
¥2,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,600,000)
This study contains two investigations. First is "A Japanese-French Comparative Study on Cultural sensibility and Cognitive Development about Spatial Objects". The main purpose of the study is to confirm a hypothesis of different culture made up different sensibility and cognition. Third-, fifth-grade of elementary and first-grade of junior high school children in Japan and France ranked five kinds of geometrical figures, vases, and buildings based on their sensibility of 1)favorableness, 2)beautifulness, 3)strangeness, and 4)calmness. The results showed that Japanese children were apt to chose a particular object on the scale of sensibility 1),3),4). And they favored and felt beauty of simple, symmetrical objects. On the contrary, French children favored and felt beauty of complex and asymmetrical objects. Most of correlations among 4 kinds of sensibilities in Japanese children were higher than that of French children. Based on the obtained differences between both countries, the rela
tionships among culture, sensibility, and creation were discussed.
Second is " A Japanese-French Comparative Study of Cognitive Development on Spatial Figures". Fourth-,sixth-, eighth-, eleventh-grader of Japan and France solved three kinds of problems. These are problems of 1)expressing three dimensional object composed of 5 cubes to two dimensional plain figures by using a set of particular rules, 2)judging the similarity of rotated sketches composed from 5 cubes to the original one. 3)constructing a 3-dimensional object by connecting 5 dices under the constraints of the problem. Children of both countries developed successfully their spatial ability to transform 3-dimensional information to 2-dimensional plain figures by observing the particular rules. Nevertheless, a striking difference was seen between both countries. Several percent(5.2%) of Japanese children solved new problems by changing their viewpoints to the objects, that was highly contrasted with 0% of French children. The result was discussed from an angle of the flexibility of thought in creativity. Concerning problem 2), almost the same results were derived between both countries. Concerning problem 3), more than 50% of French children had no answer, that was in contrast with less than 10% of Japanese children at same grade. The higher rate of no answer may be due to the unfamiliarity of a dice in French culture. Less