|Budget Amount *help
¥1,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,400,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
The relevance of John Dewey's philosophy for restructuring modern theories of education is examined by this project. Special attention is paid to the recent studies of phenomenology, hermaneutics, and critical theory. Through the comparison between Dewey and such philosphers as Alfred Schutz, Richard Rorty, and Jurgen Habermas, a new paradigm for a philosophy of education is sought. The research results are as follows :
1, Dewey's "naturalistic metaphysics" seeks for the construction of a metaphysics of "experience, " in which ontology and epistemology are fused into one. It is a philosophy of "contextualism, " which regards experience or a situation as a contextual whole. Thus, his theory of education is a humanistic empiricism which explores the possibilities of human experience.
2, Dewey's idea of "pre-reflective situation (or primary experience) " and Schutz's idea of "life-word" share a similar philosophical sturcture. Phenomenological concepts of "intentionality" and "intersubjectivity" are also developed in Dewey's theories of "habit and shared experience. "
3, Dewey's method of inquiry is a "unified logical method" by which the transformation of a situation will be conducted and one's system of meanings can be corroborated and enriched.
4, Dewey's "social inquiry" and Habermas' "communicative reason" share a common goal of generating a comprehensive consensus, which can be achieved through dialogue between two groups of different opinions and ideas. Rorty calls this search for an "inter-intersubjective consensus" the "Dewey-Habermas line. "
5, Education is a continuous process of "passionate inquiry. " Continuous "communicative inquiry" is a matrix of "mutual growth, " which is an essential condition of cultivating "coinquirers. " It is a life-long process in which factual, conceptual, moral, and practical forms of knowledge will be restructured and enriched continuously.