During this year, I have studied about the origines of the Cities in the Eastern Europe. Regarding the origines of the cities in the Eastern Europe, there used to be controversies between the Kolonisationtheorie, which insists on the transplantation of the urban law of Gbrmany into the Eastern Europe, and the Evolutionstheorie, which emphasized on the autogenetic evolution of the cities. However, the investigation of the archaeological excavation after the World War II proved the tenability of the latter theory. I have studied about the principal cities, especially Wolin, Szczecin, Biscurin, Lednica, Gniezno, Leczyca, Poznan, droclaw and Prague. On thevround of the results of these studies, I wink to)a. ssert that there are three rhases of the urban development in the Eastern-Eurore.
At the first step, the original form of these cities was the castle --so-called the grod (grad, hrad, gard, kreml), which was protected enough by the strong wall and the deep trench. This grod was, at the begining of its construction, utilized as a ulace of refuge for the triba. 1 group and, at a later period, as a residential quoter for the local uowerful clan and its retainera. At the second step, the peculier settlements were made for the feudal retainers and the craftsmen. At the third ster, this settlements were exuanded with the market, the district of the merchants and many institutions of the Christian church. And, in the 12th century, the cities of the Eastern Europe as the organization of burghers were completed, when the urban laws of Germany, especially Fdagdeburg, were accepted.